Human Settlements class 12 Notes Geography

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CBSE Guide Human Settlements class 12 Notes Geography

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12 Geography notes Chapter 4 Human Settlements

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CBSE Class 12 Geography (Book-2)
Revision Notes
Human Settlements class 12 Notes Geography


. A place inhabited more or less permanently.

. cluster of dwellings of any type or size where human beings live

. They vary in size from hamlet to metropolitan cities, they may be small and large closed or spaced, they may practice primary / secondary/ tertiary activities

Classification of Settlements

. Settlements can be differentiated in terms of rural and urban


1. Primary occupation -agriculture, fishing,lumbering , mining, animal husbandry, etc1. Occupations related to secondary and tertiary sectors
2. Provide raw material2. Process the raw material
3. Size of population is less3. Size of population is high
4. Standard of living is low and low source of income4. Standard of living is high and high source of income
5. Low density of population5. High density of population
6. Spaced6. Clustered



1. Compact and and congested with narrow plains.

2. size of these settlements depends on nature and resources of surrounding country.

3. based on farming.

4. Different shapes such as geometric rectangular, radial, linear,

5. mostly found in highly productive alluvial plains like Indo-Gangetic Plains, the Hwang Ho Valley, Valley of Nile.

6. Availability of water also decides the shape.


1. Formed due to result from tendency of clustered in restricted area of dispersed settlement

2. Segregation of large settlement may also cause

3. Some may be forced to live separately from the main village

4. Dominance group live in the center of the village

5. People of lower strata live in out skirt of the village

6.houses occupy open spaces

7. Most common in Gujarat and Rajasthan


1. They are isolated huts are hamlets

2. Located on hills or agricultural lands

3. It is due to nature of terrain, and land resource , water

4. Found in Steppe grass­lands of Kazakhstan.

Factors affecting the location of Rural Settlements

1. Water supply

2. Land

3. Upland

4. Building materials

5. Defence

6. Planned Settlements- infrastructure

Rural Settlement Patterns

Rural Settlement are classified on many basis-

1. Settings- plain villages, plateau villages,coastal villages, forest villages and desert villages.

2. Functions- farming villages, fishermen’s villages,lumberjack villages, pastoral villages

3. Forms or shapes- Linear, rectangular, circular starlike, T-shaped village, double village, cross-shaped village

Problems of Rural Settlements

. Lack of infrastructure

. Inadequate supply of water

. Absence of toilet and garbage disposal facilities

. Waterborne diseases

. Unmetalled roads and lack of modern communication network

. difficulties in providing emergency services

. Lack of health facilities


. The first city reach 1million was London by 1810

. By 1982 there were 175 countries reached 1 million population

. 48% of population lives in US

Classification of Urban Settlements

. basis of classification are size of population,occupational structure and administrative
setup , location

. Population size-

# Population size for settlement in Colombia (1500), Portugal & Argentina (2000), USA& Thailand (2500), India(5000), Japan(30,000)

# Density of 400 per sq km- share of non agricultural workers in India

# 250 persons per sq km in Sweden and Denmark, 300 in Iceland and 1000 in Canada and Venezuela

. Administration

# Municipality, cantonment board, notified area council in India is considered as urban centre

# Latin America all administrative centre are urban centre

. Location

# Today’s Urban Settlements location are based on modern technology, site, situation

# Military center,Seaport, Strategic towns,mining towns,Tourist town, Recreational town,Educational towns, industrial towns, administrative town and commercial towns

Functions of Urban centres

. Towns and cities are classified into the following categories

1. Administrative towns- National capitals, which house the administrative offices of central governments, such as New Delhi, Canberra, Beijing, Addis Ababa, Washington D.C., and London

2. Trading and commercial towns- Agricultural market towns -Winnipeg and Kansas city; banking and financial centres -Frankfurt and Amsterdam; Lahore, Baghdad and
Agra – trading centres.

3. Cultural towns- Places of pilgrimage – Jerusalem, Mecca, Jagannath Puri and Varanasi

Classification of towns on the basis of forms

1. Linear,
2. Square,
3. Star 4. Crescent shape

AddisAbaba( the new flower)

. name of Ethiopian capital Addis Ababa, established in 1878

. City located on hill valley

. Mercator is the largest market between Cairo and Johannesburg

Types of Urban Settlements

. Towns- enlarged villages manufacturing, retail, wholesale, professional services

. City- it is a leading town, greater number of functions, transport terminals, major financial institutions, regional administrative offices

. Conurbation- coined by PATRICK GEDDES in 1915 . Merging number of towns / cities . Examples-London, Manchester, Chicago ,Tokyo

. Megalopolis- Used by Jean Guttmann : super metropolitan region it is a union of conurbations . Example. Boston to Washington

Million City

. London is the first town to reach one million in 1800 followed by Paris in 1850, new York 1860, 1950 there were 80 cities 438 in 2005

Distribution of mega cities

. Populatio more than 10 million , New York is the first to attain this status in 1950 with population 12.5 million.

.There are 25 megacities at present.

Problems of Human Settlements in the developing countries

1. Unsustainable concentration of population
2. Congested housing and streets
3. Lack of drinking water
4. Lack of electricity, sewage disposal health and education facilities
5. Lack of transport facilities
6. Health and education facilities
7. Water and air pollution

Problems of Urban Settlements

1. Decreasing employment
2. Pool of unskilled and semi-skilled labour
3. Saturated employment opportunities


1. Lack of health and educational facilities,

2.Transport facilities

3.Unbalanced sex ratio,

4.Insufficient financial Resources,

5.Lack of basic needs


1.Lack of urban waste disposal,

2.Lack of potable water,

3.Improper sewerage facilities

4. Air pollution, water pollution, Noise pollution

Human Settlements class 12 Notes Geography

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CBSE Class-12 Revision Notes and Key Points

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