Land Resource and Agriculture class 12 Notes Geography

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12 Geography notes Chapter 5 Land Resource and Agriculture

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CBSE class 12 Goegraphy (Book-2)

CHAPTER-5 

Land Resource and Agriculture class 12 Notes Geography

LAND USE CATEGORIES

1. Forests

2. Land put to non agricultural use

3. Barren and waste land

4. Area under permanent pastures

5. Area under miscellaneous tree crops

6. Culturalble waste land

7. Current fallow land

8. Fallow other than current fallow

9. NET SOWN AREA

LAND USE CHANGES IN INDIA

THREE TYPES OF CHANGES

I. Size of economy: grow over time, change in income level, marginal lands will become useful

II. Composition of the economy: the secondary and tertiary grew much faster than primary sector. Land from Ag. Use to non Ag use such as built up area

III. The contribution of agricultural activities reduces over time The share of Ag. Is declined. No. of people fed by Agri. is increasing

 INCREASE IN THREE CATEGORIES

1.i. FOREST.

ii. AREA UNDER NONAGRICULTURAL USE

iii. CURRENT FALLOW LAND

2. FOUR AREAS DECLINED

i. Barren and waste land

ii. Cultivable wasteland

iii. Area under pastures& tree crops

iv. Net sown area

COMMON PROPERTY RESOURCES

1. PRIVATE 2. COMMON PROPERTY

I. THE CPTS ARE USED BY COMMON PURPOSE / SOCIETY OWNED BY STATE

II. PROVIDE FODDER FOR LIVE STOCK FUEL FOR THE HOUSE HOLDS

III. PRODUCE MINOR FOREST PRODUCTS SUCH AS FRUITS, NUTS, FIBRE, MEDICINAL PLANTS

IV. EVERY MEMBER HAS RIGHT TO ACCESS

AGRICULTURAL LAND USE IN INDIA

1. Contribution of land in agricultural use is more important

2. Lack of access to land leads to poverty

3. Productivity depends on quality of land

4. Land ownership has social value in rural areas

TOTAL CULTIVABLE LAND IS = NETWOWN AREA + FALLOW LAND + ULTURABLE WASTE LAND

1. Since there is no extra land available only the high yielding varieties can increase the productivity

2. Number of times the land can be increased by providing Irrigation Crop intensity can be raised

CROPPING SEASONS

SEASONPERIODCROPS
KHARIFJUNE-SEPRICE, COTTON MILLETS GROUND NUT
RABIOCT-NOVWHEAT GRAM, RICE MAIZE MILLETS
ZAIDAPRIL-JUNEVEG. FRUITS

TYPES OF FARMING

 BASED ON MOISTURE FOR THE CROPS

IRRIGATED FARMING

1. It is protective/ productive of crops,

2. Due to moisture deficiency irrigation is essential

3. Supplementary to the rainfall

4. To increase cultivable area

5. To achieve high productivity

RAIN FED FARMING

1. Divided in to two types a. Dry land farming b. wet land farming

2. Dry land farming located in the area of less than 75 cm rain fall

3.  drought resistant crops are grown

4. Millets, maize fodder crops

5.  practice rainwater harvesting

WETLAND FARMING

1. Found in areas of high rainfall zones

2. Water intensive crops such as rice, sugarcane, jute are grown

CROPPING PATTERN

FOOD GRAINS

CEREALS:

RICE 

·   grown on sea level to 2000 mts altitude,

·   3000 varieties are grown

·   grown in three seasons AUS AMAN BORO in west Bengal / Kharif . Rabi season.

·   22% of rice production in India.

·   second after china.

·   ¼ area is under rice cultivation.

·   WB, PUN UP rice is grown

WHEAT:

·   Second most important crop,

·   12% of production is from India,

·   Generally, in winter it is grown.

·   Grown in North and central India,

·   Irrigation is essential.

·   Rain fed crop in Himalayan region.

·   14% is under wheat cultivation.

·   UP, PUN, HAR, RAJ. Are leading producers

JOWAR:

·   16.5 % cropped area is under this crop,

·   Main food crop in semiarid areas,

·   Maharashtra alone produces ½ of the production,

·   Others are KK, MP AP

BAJRA:

HOT AND DRY CLIMATIC CONDITIONS ARE NEEDED.

·   Grown in drought resistant crop,

·   It is cultivated alone or mixed crop,

·   5.2% of total cropped area.

·   Leading producers are MS, GUJ RAJ, HAR

MAIZE:

·   Grown any type of land.

·   It is food and fodder crop,

·   3.6% total cropped area,

·   it is grown all over India,

·   the leading producers are MP, AP. KK, RAJ, YIELD IS HIGH IN SOUTHERN STATE

PULSES:

·   Rich source of protein,

·   Increase natural fertility.

·   Used in crop rotation,

·   India is leading producer of pulses.

·   Concentrated in dry lands,

·   11% of total cropped area. GRAM, TUR ARE MAJOR CROPS.

GRAM :

·   Cultivated in subtropical area,

·   Rain fed crop,

·   2.8% of total cropped area,

·   Leading producers are MP, UP, MS, AP, RAJ

TUR(ARHAR)

·   Second important pulse crop,

·   It is also called red gram or pigeon pea,

·   Rain fed crop,

·   2% of total cropped area,

·   Leading producers are MS. UP, KK GUJ

OIL SEEDS : GROUND NUT :

·   17% of total production of the world is in India

·   Rain fed,

·   Grown in Kharif season,

·   3.6% of total cropped area,

·   Leading producers are GUJ, TN, AP, KKA MS

RAPE SEED, MISTARD:

·   Consists of rai sarson toria taramira,

·   They are subtropical crops,

·   Grown in Rabi season,

·   Frost sensitive,

·   Irrigated crop,

2/3 under irrigation,

2.5 % of cropped area is under this crop.

2.6 Leading producers are  RAJ, UP, HAR, WB ,MP

FIBRE CROPS; 

COTTON: 

·   Grown in Kharif season,

·   Semi arid region,

·   Short staple and long staple are grown,

·   Black soil is suitable,

·   India ranks 4th in the world.

·   After China USA and Pakistan.

% of world production.

·   4.7% total cropped area. Leading producers are  PUN, HAR, RAJ, GUJ MS. AP KK

JUTE:

·   Used for packing material,

·   Cash crop,

·   India produces 3/5 of the world production.

·   0.5 % total cropped area is under this crop,

·   Leading states are: WB, BI,AS

OTHERS SUGAR CANE: 

·   tropical crop,

·   cultivated in sub-humid regions,

·   irrigated crop,

·   India is the second largest producer,

·   23% of world‟s production come from India.

·   of cropped area is under this crop.

·   The leading producers are  UP, MS, KK,TN, AP

TEA :

·   Plantation crop,

·   tea leaf has high content of caffeine and tannin.

·   Grown in hilly areas,

·   heavy rainfall is needed,

·   started in 1840 in Assam by British.

·   Grown Darjeeling, Jalpaiguri, Niligiris, Western Ghats,

·   28% of world production comes from India.

·   India rank 3rd after Sri Lanka & China.

·   53.2% total cropped area is under this crop.

·   Leading producers are WB & TN

COFFEE:

Three varieties ARABICA, ROBUSTA, LIBERICA,

4.3% of world production comes from India.

Sixth after BRAZIL, VIETNAM, COLOMBIA, INDONESIA, MEXICO. Leading producers are KK, TN, KER

AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT IN INDIA

1. 53% of population depends on agriculture

2. 57% land is meant for cultivation

3. 0.31% of hectares per capita

STRATEGY OF EVELOPMENT

Govt. of India took steps to increase the production

i. Switching over from cash crops to food grains

ii. Increase crop intensity

iii. Increasing cultivated area

iv. Improvement of irrigation

v. Intensive agricultural district programme and intensive agricultural area programme were launched

vi. Use of HYV seeds, fertilizers, irrigation, pesticides,

vii.  Use of package technology

viii. Introduction of GREEN REVOLUTION

ix. Large agriculture inputs

GROWTH OF AGRICULTURAL OUTPUT AND TECHNOLOGY

1. Production and yield increased (wheat, rice, oil seeds, sugarcane, tea pulses, cattle, milk, ground nut)

2. Expansion of irrigated area

3. Use of HYV seeds

4. Use of modern agricultural technology

5. Increased consumption of chemical fertilizers

PROBLEMS OF INDIAN AGRICULTURE

1.  Uneven and unreliable rainfall

2. Low productivity

3. Poverty of the farmers

4. Lack of land reforms

5. Fragmentation of land holdings

6. Lack of commercialization

7. Vast under employment

8. Degradation of cultivable land

9. Illiteracy of the farmers

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CBSE Class-12 Revision Notes and Key Points

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