Human Development class 12 Notes Geography

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CBSE class 12 Geography Human Development class 12 Notes Geography in PDF are available for free download in myCBSEguide mobile app. The best app for CBSE students now provides Human Development class 12 Notes Geography latest chapter wise notes for quick preparation of CBSE board exams and school based annual examinations. Class 12 Geography notes on chapter 4 Human Development Geography are also available for download in CBSE Guide website.

CBSE Guide Human Development class 12 Notes Geography

CBSE guide notes are the comprehensive notes which covers the latest syllabus of CBSE and NCERT. It includes all the topics given in NCERT class 12 Geography text book. Users can download CBSE guide quick revision notes from myCBSEguide mobile app and my CBSE guide website.

12 Geography notes Chapter 4 Human Development

Download CBSE class 12th revision notes for chapter 4 Human Development in PDF format for free. Download revision notes for Human Development class 12 Notes Geography and score high in exams. These are the Human Development class 12 Notes prepared by team of expert teachers. The revision notes help you revise the whole chapter 4 in minutes. Revision notes in exam days is one of the best tips recommended by teachers during exam days.

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CBSE class 12 Geography (Book-1)
Chapter-4 Revision Notes
Human Development class 12 Notes Geography

GROWTH: 

· it is the quantitative

· and value neutral,

· it may be positive, or negative,

· ex. Density of population, total population

DEVELOPMENT:

· qualitative change

· always positive,

· an addition to the present condition,

· Ex. Per-capita income facilities

The concept of human development was introduced by DR. Mahbubul Haq : development that enlarges people‟s choices and improves their lives.

People can live meaningful life. Life with some purpose, people must be healthy, develop their talents,

The four pillars of human development

· EQUITY: equal opportunities available to everybody.

Irrespective of gender, race, income (in case of India women and low caste people drop out the school is more)

· SUSTAINABILITY: continuity in availability of resources, each generation must have opportunities,

· PRODUCTIVITY: productivity in terms of labor productivity, it should be constantly enriched.

· EMPOWERMENT: to have power to make decisions. Increasing freedom and capability, good governance, and govt. policies.

APPROACHES TO HUMAN DEVELOPMENT

A. INCOME APPROACH:

oldest method,

level of income leads to development

B. WELFARE APPROACH:  

higher the expenditure on education, health, and other amenities by the government.

C. BASIC NEEDS APPROACH: it was introduced by ILO – SIX BASIC NEEDS

1. Health

2. Education

3. Food

4. Water Supply

5. Sanitation

6. Housing to be given importance

D. CAPABILITY APPROACH : associated with Prof. Amartya Sen. Access to education and health facilities.

INTERNATIONAL COMPARISIONS

–   Size of the country and per-capita income are not directly related to human development. Like SRILANKA AND TRINIDAD HAVE HIGHER HDI THAN INDIA

–   THEY ARE DIVIDED INTO THREE GROUPS

–   HIGH -ABOVE 0.8    :57 COUNTRIES

–   MEDIUM – 0.5-0.799 :88 COUNTRIES

–   LOW – BELOW 0.5   :32 COUNTRIES

COUNTRIES WITH HIGH INDEX VALUE: NORWAY, ICELAND, AUSTRALIA education and health care are priorities for the government.

COUNTRIES WITH MEDIUM INDEX: it consists of large group, emerged after second world war, adopting people oriented policies.

COUNTRIES WITH LOW INDEX VALUE: large number of these countries are very small. political turmoil, social instability, civil war, high incidence of diseases.

Human Development class 12 Notes Geography

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CBSE Class-12 Revision Notes and Key Points

Human Development class 12 Notes Geography. CBSE quick revision note for class-12 Geography, Chemistry, Math’s, Biology and other subject are very helpful to revise the whole syllabus during exam days. The revision notes covers all important formulas and concepts given in the chapter. Even if you wish to have an overview of a chapter, quick revision notes are here to do if for you. These notes will certainly save your time during stressful exam days.

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