Geographical Perspective class 12 Notes Geography

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CBSE Guide Geographical Perspective class 12 Notes Geography

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12 Geography notes Chapter 12 Geographical Perspective

Download CBSE class 12th revision notes for chapter 12 Geographical Perspective in PDF format for free. Download revision notes for Geographical Perspective class 12 Notes Geography and score high in exams. These are the Geographical Perspective class 12 Notes prepared by team of expert teachers. The revision notes help you revise the whole chapter 12 in minutes. Revision notes in exam days is one of the best tips recommended by teachers during exam days.

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CBSE class 12 Geography (Book-2)
Chapter-12

Geographical Perspective class 12 Notes Geography

Pollution
It is the unwanted matter and energy in the environment which harms to the man
Types of pollution:
1. Air pollution
2. Water pollution
3. Land pollution
4. Noise pollution

PollutionCausesPollutantsEffectsSolution
Air PollutionCombustion of coal diesel, industrial processes solid waste disposal sewage disposalOxides of sulphur, nitrogen, carbon monoxide, ammonia, lead, aldehydes asbestos &berylliumCauses various diseases, respiratory , nervous and circulatory systems cause smog in cities, acid rain, in return cause damage to the buildingsPlantation, use of filters in industries, use of nonconventional energy resources use of public transport
Water PollutionSewage disposal, urban runoff, toxic effluents, runoff from Ag. landsOdor, suspended solids, ammonia, urea, chloride, grease, insecticide, heavy metalsWater borne diseases diarrhea, intestinal worms, hepatitis, ¼ diseases are caused by water pollutionControlled use of fertilizers, pesticides, treat the waste before release to the streams from industries
Land PollutionImproper human activities disposal of untreated wasteHuman and animal excreta , virus and bacteria garbage, vectors therein, radio active subsistenceExhaustion of land land pollution, heavy metals are transferred to the Ag. Products Cause water pollutionEducate the farmers about the importance of land utility and consequences of pollution
Noise PollutionAir crafts, automobiles trains, industrial processing advertisingHigh level of noisecause neural and heart diseaseLocate industries away from living areas

Sources of Pollution in the Ganga and Yamuna Rivers

River and StatePolluted StretchesNature of PollutionPollutants
Ganga- UP, BI, WB1. Downstream of Kanpur
2. Downstream of Varanasi
3. Farrakka barrage
1. Industries in Kanpur
2. Domestic and urban
3. waste Carcasses of man
Kanpur, Allahabad, Varanasi, Patna , Kolkata
Yamuna – Delhi, UP1. Delhi to confluence with Chambal
2. Mathura and Agra
Diverse of water to HR,UP
Ag. Runoff, industrial waste
Urban waste from Delhi

Case Study- Dharvi the Asia’s Largest Slum
Features

• There is only one road about 90 feet
• Narrow streets, one toilet for every 1440 people
• Two/three stored buildings with rusty iron gates
• Single room for 12 people
• Tree less sunlight uncollected garbage
• Stagnant pools, fowl water,
• Zari work ,pottery, wood carving , scheduled caste people
• Poor Muslims, treatment of hides and tanning

Urban Waste Disposal
Overcrowding , congestion, inadequate facilities, poor sanitary conditions, significant quantity of solid waste Pieces of metals, polythene bags , broken glass ware plastic containers ashes garbage and CDs make solid waste

Sources of Urban Waste
1. House hold establishments: thrown in public lands, private contractors sites
2. Industrial establishments: thrown in low lying public grounds

Effects of Solid Waste
1. Health hazard due to obnoxious smell, flies and rodents
2. Disease like typhoid, diphtheria diarrhea malaria cholera
3. They are spitted through rain water
4. Industrial waste dumping in the rivers cause water pollution ex. Ganga , Yamuna

Case Study – Daurala
1. Meerut based NGO developed a model for ecological restoration
2. The ground water was contaminated with industrial waste
3. Ngo collected the data about the health conditions of the locality

Steps Taken
1. Overhead tank capacity was increased
2. Ponds were cleaned
3. Silt was removed
4. Rain water harvesting structures were made
5. 1000 trees have been planted

Rural –Urban Migration
Reasons

1. Demand for labour in urban areas
2. Low job opportunities in rural areas
3. Un-development of rural areas
4. People migrate to bigger cities

Problems of Slum Areas
1. Least choice
2. Dilapidated houses
3. Poor hygienic conditions
4. Poor ventilation
5. Lack of drinking water, light, toilet facilities
6. Overcrowded , narrow streets, low paid workers
7. Prone to diseases, alcoholism, vandalism, apathy, social exclusion

Land Degradation
Causes

1. Pressure on agriculture
2. Increase in population density
3. Faulty methods of agriculture
4. Excessive use of fertilizers, pesticides
5. Indiscriminate cutting of trees
6. Heavy rains
7. Floods

Classification of Waste Land by NRSA using remote sensing
Techniques

1. Caused by Natural Agents
Gullies, ravenous land, deserted , coastal sands, barren rocky areas, steep sloping land, glacial areas
2. Caused by Natural as well as Human Factors
Waterlogged and marshy areas, land affected by salinity and alkalinity, land with or without scrub
3. Caused by Human Actions
Degraded shifting cultivated areas, degraded land under plantation crops, degraded forests, degraded pastures, mining and industrial waste lands

Case Study- Ecological Balance
Reasons

1. Westernmost climatic zone in MP.
2. One of the five backward districts of the country
3. High concentration of Bhills
4. suffer from poverty
5. Most degraded land

Objectives
1. Start watershed development programme
2. Link of water, land, vegetation
3. Natural resource management
4. Increase common property resources
5. Each family should plant one tree at least
6. Planted fodder grass
7. Social fencing
8. Stop open grazing land
9. Stopping the common property resources by govt.

Classification of Wasteland by Process
1. Barren and uncultivated wasteland 2.18%
2. Natural degraded common waste land 2.4%
3. Natural man made common waste land 7.51%
4. Man made degraded common waste land 5.88%
5. Total degraded land 15.8%

Geographical Perspective class 12 Notes Geography

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CBSE Class-12 Revision Notes and Key Points

Geographical Perspective class 12 Notes Geography. CBSE quick revision note for class-12 Geography, Chemistry, Math’s, Biology and other subject are very helpful to revise the whole syllabus during exam days. The revision notes covers all important formulas and concepts given in the chapter. Even if you wish to have an overview of a chapter, quick revision notes are here to do if for you. These notes will certainly save your time during stressful exam days.

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1 thought on “Geographical Perspective class 12 Notes Geography”

  1. Cbse have provided the centre material for students of both class 10th & 12th which is available on the official website of cbse.

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