Migration class 12 Notes Geography

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CBSE class 12 Geography Migration class 12 Notes Geography in PDF are available for free download in myCBSEguide mobile app. The best app for CBSE students now provides Migration class 12 Notes Geography latest chapter wise notes for quick preparation of CBSE board exams and school based annual examinations. Class 12 Geography notes on chapter 2 Migration Geography are also available for download in CBSE Guide website.

CBSE Guide Migration class 12 Notes Geography

CBSE guide notes are the comprehensive notes which covers the latest syllabus of CBSE and NCERT. It includes all the topics given in NCERT class 12 Geography text book. Users can download CBSE guide quick revision notes from myCBSEguide mobile app and my CBSE guide website.

12 Geography notes Chapter 2 Migration

Download CBSE class 12th revision notes for chapter 2 Migration in PDF format for free. Download revision notes for Migration class 12 Notes and score high in exams. These are the Migration class 12 Notes Geography prepared by team of expert teachers. The revision notes help you revise the whole chapter 2 in minutes. Revision notes in exam days is one of the best tips recommended by teachers during exam days.

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CBSE Class 12 Geography (Book-2)
INDIA- PEOPLE AND ECONOMY
CHAPTER-2
Migration class 12 Notes Geography

First migration was conducted in 1881 by the Census of India.

In 1961 two components has been added i e place of birth (lifetime migrants) and place of residence (migrant by place of last residence).

In 2001, 30% of people migrants by place of birth.

31% people migrants by place of last residence.

Streams of Migration

In internal migration (within the country) four streams are identified-

(a) Rural-Rural (b) Rural-Urban (c)Urban-Rural (d) Urban-Urban

During 2001, out of 315 million migrants (place of last residence),98 million changed their place of residence in 10 years

81 million (2001) are intra-state migrants

Stream was dominated mainly by female migrants due to social factor i e marriage

While men predominate the rural-urban of inter-state migration due to economic reasons

India also experience immigration from and emigration to the neighbouring countries

According to 2001 Census more than 5 million persons have migrated to India from other countries

96% are from the neighbouring countries: Bangladesh (3 0million), Pakistan (0 9), Nepal (0 5)

About 0 16 million refugees are from Tibet, Sri Lanka, Bangladesh, Pakistan, Afghanistanand, Iran and Myanmar

Spatial Variation in Migration

Maharashtra, Gujarat and Haryana has highest migrants from other states such as UP, Bihar

Maharashtra ranks 1st in in-migration population followed by Delhi, Gujarat and Haryana

While UP and Bihar has the largest out-migrants

Greater Mumbai (Urban Agglomeration) received highest number of in-migrants

Causes of Migration

Reasons of migration is divided into two categories

(i) Push factors- The important factors are- poverty, high population pressure on the land, lack of basic infrastructure facilities like health care, education; natural disasters-flood, drought, cyclonic storms, earthquake, tsunami; wars and local conflict

(ii) Pull factors- better opportunities; availability of regular work, relatively higher wages; better opportunities for education; better health facilities; source of entertainment

Reasons for migration of males and females are different

About 38% of male migrate due to work and employment

And about 65% of female migration is mainly due to social reason i e marriage

Marriage migration of male is only 2% in the country

Consequences of Migration

Economic consequences

– A major economic benefit of migration is the remittance sent by migrants

– Remittance from the international migration are one of the major source of foreign exchange

– In 2002, India received US$ 11 billion as remittance from international migrants

– Punjab, Kerela, Tamil Nadu receive very important amount from their international migrants

– Remittance amount play an important role in the growth of economy

– Remittances are mainly used for food, repayment of debts, treatment, marriages,
children’s education, agricultural inputs, construction of houses, etc

– It works as a life blood economy for thousand of poor villages of Bihar, UP, Orissa, Andhra Pradesh, Himachal Pradesh

Some of the drawbacks of migration are

(i) unregulated migration to the cities has caused overcrowding

(ii) development of slums in industrially developed states such as Maharashtra, Gujarat, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu and Delhi

Demographic consequences

It leads to the redistribution of the population within a country

Rural-urban migration contribute to the population growth of cities

Adverse effect on the rural demographic structure i e on age and skill selective

Out- migration create imbalance in age and sex composition Eg in Uttaranchal, Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh and Eastern Maharashtra

Social consequences

Migrants acts as agents of social change

New technology, family planning, girl’s education etc get diffused from Urban-Rural areas

It leads to intermixing of people from diverse culture

Drawbacks of migration are

(i) It create anonymity which creates social vaccum and sense of dejection among individuals

(ii) Dejection may motivate people to fall in the trap of anti-social activities like crime and drug abuse

Environmental consequences

Overcrowding of people due to rural-urban migration leads to unplanned growth of urban settlement

Formation of slums shanty colonies

Over exploitation of natural resources leads to acute problem of depletion of ground water, air pollution, disposal of sewage and management of solid wastes

Other consequences

Migration affects the status of women directly or indirectly

Male selective out migration leaving their wives behind puts extra physical as well mental pressure on the women

Out migration leads to the loss of human resources particularly highly skilled people

Migration class 12 Notes Geography

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CBSE Class-12 Revision Notes and Key Points

Migration class 12 Notes Geography. CBSE quick revision note for class-12 Geography, Chemistry, Math’s, Biology and other subject are very helpful to revise the whole syllabus during exam days. The revision notes covers all important formulas and concepts given in the chapter. Even if you wish to have an overview of a chapter, quick revision notes are here to do if for you. These notes will certainly save your time during stressful exam days.

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