Mineral and Energy Resources class 12 Notes Geography

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12 Geography notes Chapter 7 Mineral and Energy Resources

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CBSE class-12 Geography (Book-2)

CHAPTER-7 

Mineral and Energy Resources class 12 Notes Geography

A mineral Is a natural substance of organic /inorganic origin with definite chemical and physical properties.

TYPES OF MINERALS

METALLIC MINERALS

A. FERROUS: IRON MANGANESE

B. NON FERROUS; COPPER BAUXITE

NONMETALLIC MINERAL

A. FUEL MINERAL: COAL, PETROLEUM,

B. OTHER NON METALLIC: LIME STONE

AGENCIES INVOLVED IN THE EXPLORATION OF MINERALS

1. Geological survey of India

2. Oil and natural gas commission

3. Mineral exploration corporation ltd

4. National mineral development corporation

5. Indian bureau of mines

6. Bharat gold mines

7. Hindustan copper ltd

8. National aluminum ltd

9. Dept. Of mining and geology

DISTRIBUTION OF MINERALS

1. Metallic minerals occur in peninsular region

2. Coal reserves are found in valleys of Mahanadi, Godavari, Sone, Damodar

3. Petroleum occur in sedimentary deposits of Assam And Gujarat

4. New reserves are discovered in Krishna Godavari Cauvery basins

5.  Most of the minerals occur in east of line linking Mangalore an Kanpur

6.  There are located in three broad belts

NORTH EASTERN PLATEAU REGION

1.cover WB,ORI ,CHH

2. Minerals are iron coal manganese, bauxite, mica

SOUTH WESTERN PLATEAU REGION

1. Covers KK ,GOA, KER &TN

2. Minerals are ferrous metals, lime stone, bauxite iron ore, manganese  coal deposits monazite in KERALA iron ore in GOA

NORTH WESTERN REGION

1. Covers RAJ, GUJ

2.  minerals are copper zinc, sandstone granite marble, gypsum fullers earth  dolomite and lime stone. Petroleum in GUJ.

Himalayan belt

minerals are copper lead, zinc, cobalt tungsten

FERROUS MINERALS: IRONMANGANESE, CHROMITE 

1.iron ore : largest iron ore in Asia, Haematite And Magnetite are the two types of iron ores, it has great demand in the international market

2. The total reserve is about  20 bi. Tones

955 is located in  ORI JHAR, CHH KA, AP TN

Orissa : Sundergarh , Mayurbhanj  Jhar mining centers; Gurumahishani, Sulaipet Badampahar  Kiruburu Bonai

Jharkhand; Noamundi And Gua  Located Inwest And East Singhbhum

Chh; Durg Danteware  Bailadila  Dalli Rajhara

Kk: Sundur, Hospet, Bababudn hills, Tumkur  Chitradurg

Ms. Chandrapur, Bhandara Ratnagiri

Ap: Kurnool , Karinagar Cudapah Anantapur

MANGANESE 

Used in steel making,Orissa is the leading producer, Bonai, Kendujhar, Suddergarh,. Gangpur, Koraput Kalahandi Bolangir are important producers

KAR:  Darwar, Bellary Belgaum N.Canara Chikmagalur

MS: NAGPUR, BAHANDARA RATNAGIRI

NON FERROUS MINERALS

BAUXITE 

It is the ore of aluminum

Aluminum is used to make construction, aircraft, utensils , electrical items

ORISSA: KALAHINDI, SAMPALPUR are leading producers

Lohardhaga In Jharkhand,

Kolaba Thane Ratnagiri of MS

Bhavnagar, Jamnagar of Guj.

COPPER 

USED INELECTRICAL INDUSTRY

Distribution: Singhbhum  in Jharkhand, Balaghat of MP, Jhunjhunu Alwar of raj.

Minor producers are Hassan of Karnataka, Agnigundale of AP

NON METALLIC MINERALS

MICA: used in electical industry and furnace

found in Hazaribagh of Bihar Nellore of ap. Jaipur Bhilwara of RAJ

ENERGY RESOURCES

COAL, PETROLEUM NATURAL GAS,NUCLEAR MINERALS

COAL: there  are three types of coal

1. Anthracite: found in Himalayan region

2. Bituminus : located in Gondwana field DVC, Godavari Valley Sone Valley Jharia, Raniganj,  Mahanadi Valley  Chanda Wardha Valley

3. Nyvely lignites: found in TN

4. Tertiary coal is found in Assam. ARP, MEG. NAG. J&K

PETROLEUM

·  Used to make energy resource, petrochemical industries fertilizer, synthetic rubber, wax lubricants, soap cosmetics

·  It is also called as liquid gold

·  It is found in Digboi, Naharkatia Moran In Assam, Ankaleshwar, Kalol Mehasena Nawagam In Gujarat. Mumbai High

·  Krishna Godavari Basin

·  Oil refineries

·  There are two types of oil refineries (i) field based (ii) market based

·  There are 18 oil refineries

NATURAL GAS 

·  Found in guj, raj, tri. Krishna Godavari And Cauvery Basin

·  Nuclear  energy resources

·  Uranium and thorium re important minerals

·  Uranium is found in Dharwad rocks

·  Found in Singhbhum in Bihar,Udipur Alwar, Jhunujhun of Raj. Durg of Chh .Bhandara of Ms

·  Monazite sands of Kerala

·  Atomic energy commission was established in 1948

·  Nuclear power stations

·  Tarapur of MS, Rawatbhata of RAJ,  Kalpakkam of  TN,  Narora of UP Kaiga of KK Kakarapara of  GUJ

·  Non-conventional resources

ADVANTAGES OF NON CONVENTIONAL RESOURCES

1. No pollution

2. Abundant

3. Cheapest

4.  easy to tap

5. Eternal

SOLAR ENERGY 

ADVANTAGES

1. Abundant

2.  huge potential used for two  purposes

3.  photovoltaic‟s, solar thermal technology

4. Cist competitive,

5.  environmental friendly

6. Easy to construct

7.  7% more efficient than coal

8. 10% more efficient than coal

9. More applications  heater, crop dryers cooker

10.  western part has more potential

WIND ENERGY

1. Pollution free

2.  inexhaustible

3.  simple machinery

4. Wind rotate turbines to produce electricity

5. Permanent wind systems are used to rotate turbines

6. India planned to establish 250 wind driven turbines  with 45 mw potential

7.  there are 12 suitable locations

8. India is able to produce  3000 mw , it can produce 50000 mw

9. Lamba  and Kutch in GUJ are suitable places

TIDAL WAVE ENERGY

Energy produced with the help of tides and waves of sea

west coast is more suitable

GEOTHERMAL ENERGY

1. Hot water is used to rotate turbines

2. Ground water is heated and gushed out and can be used for generating electricity

3. Hot springs and geysers are used to generate electricity

BIO ENERGY 

1. energy generated from agricultural, animal waste, urban waste, it can be converted in to electrical energy

2. develop rural areas

3. Clean the environment

4. Cheap and easily available in rural areas

CONSERVATION OF MINERAL RESOURCES

1. Use non conventional resources

2. Recycling of metals

3. Reuse of energy resources

4. Use alternative resources

5. Use scrap metals

6. Export of strategic mineral to be reduced

Mineral and Energy Resources class 12 Notes Geography

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CBSE Class-12 Revision Notes and Key Points

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