Manufacturing Industries class 12 Notes Geography

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12 Geography notes Chapter 8 Manufacturing Industries

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CBSE class 12 Geography (Book-2)

CHAPTER-8

Manufacturing Industries class 12 Notes Geography

CLASSIFICATION OF INDUSTRIES

A. ON THE BASIS OF SIZE, CAPITAL LABOUR FORCE

1. Large, 2. Medium 3.small 4. Cottage

B. ON THE BASIS OF OWNERSHIP

1. Public 2. private 3. Joint 4.coperative

C. ON THE BASIS OF PRODUCT

1. Basic 2. Capital 3. Intermediate 4. Consumer industries

D. ON THE BASIS OF RAW MATERIALS

1. Agro based 2. Forest  3. Mineral 4. Industrially processed

E. NATURE OF PRODUCT 1. Metallurgical 2. Mechanical 3. Chemical 4. Textile 5. Food processing 6. 7.electricity generation 8. Electronics 9. Communication

LOCATION OF INDUSTRIES

LOCATIONAL FACTORS

1. Raw materials

2. Power

3. Transport

4. Labour

5. Historical factors

6. Industrial policy

MAJOR INDUSTRIES

IRON STEEL INDUSTRIES

RAW MATERIALS: iron ore, coking coal lime stone, dolomite, manganese, fire clay

TYPES OF IRON AND STEEL INDUSTRIES

1. Integrated steel plants

2. Mini steel plants

3. Rolling mills

4. Ancillary industries

INTEGRATED STEEL PLANTS

TISCO

·   250km from Kolkata

·   Water – Subarnarekha Kharki rivers

·   Naomundi and Badampahar- iron ore

·   Coal – Joda mines from Orissa

·   Coking coal – Jharia

IISCO

·   Three factories at Hirapur ,Kulti, and Burnpur

·   Coal- Ranigunj, Jharia Ramgarh

·   Ironore- Sighbhum

·   Water_ Barkar

·   Transport Kolkata Asansol railway line

VISL

·   Also called Mysore Iron and steel co.ltd

·   Iron ore- Kemangundi

·   Lime stone manganese- local

·   Charcoal used from the forest/ hydal power from jog falls

·   Water –Bhadravati

·   Produces specialsed steels

ROUKELA

·   Collaboration with Germany

·   Located near by raw materials

·   Coal-Jharia iron ore- Sundargarh

·   Power- Hirakud water –Koel

BHILAI  

·   Russian collaboration

·   Iron ore – Dalli Rajhara

·   Coal- Korna

·   Water-Tandula Dam

·   Power –Korba

·   Port – Vizak

DURGAPUR

·   Collaboration with UK

·   Coal –Raniganj

·   Iron –Naomundi

·   Power-DVC

BOKARO

·   Russian collaboration

·   Iron ore –Roukela

·   Water& power –DVC

THE COTTON TEXTILE INDUSTRY

1. One of the traditional industries in India

2. India is famous for muslin, calicos chintz

ADVANTAGES AVAILABLE FOR COTTONTEXTILE INDUSTRIES

1. Cotton cloth is most comfortable in tropical climate

2. Large area under cotton cultivation

3. Availability of abundant skilled labour

ADVANTAGES OF COTTON TEXTILES INMUMBAI

1. Close to cotton growing areas

2. Mumbai port facility

3. Provide capital for industries

4. Availability of cheap labour

5. Machines can be imported

SECTORS OF COTTON TEXTILES

·   Organized sector

·   Integrated textiles

·   Decentralized sectors

·   It includes power looms and handlooms

·   Organized sector production declined from 81% to 6%

·   decentralized sector produces 59% power looms and 19% hand looms

·   COTTON IS NOT WEIGHT LOOSING MATERIAL

INFLUENCING FACTORS ARE

1. Power 2. Labour 3. Capital 4.market

AT PRESET INDUSTRIES ARE LOCATED AT THE MARKET

SWADESI MOVEMET BROUGHT A MAJOR IMPETUS TO THE INDUSTRY

BOYCOTTING BRITISH GOOD AFTER 1921  

1. With the development of railway a cotton mills developed

2. In south India they are established in Coimbatore, Madurai Bangalore

3. In central India Nagpur, Indore Sholapur Vadodara

4. Cotton mills at Kanpur based on local investment

5. Cotton mills at Kolkata due to port facilities

6. Development of hydel power also help to industry

7. Lower labour costs helps to locate mills at Ujjain Bharuch  Coimbatore

Tirunelveli away from cotton producing areas

OTHER FACTORS ARE

·   Market , cheap labour, availability of power

·   Major centers Ahmedabad Bhiwandi, Solapur, Kolhapur Nagpur Indore Ujjain

·   They are located near by raw material leading producing states ms.guj, tn

·   Tn has largest no of mills produce yarn rather than cloth

·   Coimbatore has emerged as important center in south in KK mills are located near cotton producing areas. Davanger, Hubli, Bellary Mysore, Bangalore,

·   AP  :Hyd, Sec, Warngal Guntur

·   UP. Kanpur is th largest , Modinagar Hathras, Saharanpur Agra, Lucknow

·   WB; Hugli Howrah SeramPur Kolkata

·   Cotton production increased five times from 1950 to 2000

PROBLEMS OF COTTON MILLS

1. Competition from synthetic fiber

2. High cost of production

3. Erratic power supply

4. Frequent strikes, lockouts

5. Climatic changes decrease production

SUGAR INDUSTRY

1. Most important industry

2.india is the largest producer of sugarcane

3.8% of sugar production in India

4. Khandasari, jaggary also produced in India

5.provide 4 lakh persons employment

6.it is a seasonal industry

7.at present there are 506 mills with the production of 17699 lakh tones

LOCATION OF SUGAR INDUSTRY

1. It is a weight loosing industry crop

2. The ratio is 9-12 %

3. Sucrose content decrease soon after harvesting

4. Should be harvested before 24 hours

5. Ms is the leading producer

6. 1/3 of production comes from ms

7. There are 119 mills in the state

8. They extend from Manmad to Kolhapur

9. There are 87 mills in cooperative section

Up is the second largest producer of cotton textiles

There are two belts

1. Ganga-Yamuna Doab

2. Tarai region

Other states are TN, KK, AP

PETROCHEMICAL INDUSTRIES

·   In 1960 demand for organic chemicals increased

·   Petroleum reining industry expanded

·   Items derived from petroleum are raw materials for other industries

·   They are called petro chemical industries

SUBGROUPS OF PETROCHEMICALS

1.POLYMERS

2.SYNTHETIC FIBRE

3. ELASTOMERS

4. SURFACTANT INTERMEDIATE

Mumbai is hub of petro chemical industry

Cracker units are located at

Auriya Jamnagar, Gandhi Nagar, Hajira Nagothane Ratnagiri Haldia Vizak Organizations working under petrochemicals

INDIAN PETROCHEMICAL CORPORATION LIMITED

1. It is public sector

2. Produce polymers , chemicals fiber, fiber intermediates

PETROFILS COOERATIVE LIMITED

1.it is the joint venture of govt. And weavers cooperative society

2.produces polyesters nylon chips

Located at Vadodara Naldhari in Gujarat

CENTRAL INSTITUTE OF PLASTIC ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY

1. Provide training for engineers

Polymers are made from ethylene & propylene

Polymers are used in plastic industry

Plastic is converted into sheets power resin and pellets and then used in plastic industry

ADVANTAGES:

1. Strength 2. flexible

2. Water and chemical resistance

3. Low price

NATIONAL ORGANIC CHEMICALS INDUSTRIES LIMITED

Established in private sector in 1961

First naphtha based chemical industry at Mumbai

Center of plastic materials Mumbai, Mettur, Pimpri Rishra

They are mostly small scale sector

Uses recycled plastics

Uses of plastic

1. TO MAKE FABRICS  

USES

1. Strength 2. Durability 3. Wash ability 4. Resistant to water 5. Shrinking 6. Easy to maintain

Centers of nylon and polyester: Kota, Pimpri , Mumbai, Modinagar, Pune

Acrylic staple fiber manufactured at Kota Vadodara

The main problem of plastic is it is non biodegradable

KNOWLEDGE BASED INDUSTRY

1. Brought revolution in the industry

2. Brought new economic and social environment

3. Out sourcing is an example

4. Fastest growing industry

5. Software export is expanding every day

6. It surpassed other industries

7. It accounts 2% of GDP

8. Produce quality products

9. MNCs are producing software production

LPG

1. IT IS NEW INDUSTRIAL POLICY

OBJECITVES

1.to build on the gains already made

2. Correct the distortions

3.maintain sustained growth

4. Gainful employment

5. Attain international competitiveness

MEASURES ININTIATED

1. Abolishing industrial licensing

2. Free entry of foreign technology

3. Foreign investment policy

4. Access t capital market

5. Open trade

6. Abolition of phased manufacturing

7. Liberalized industrial location programme

DIMENSIONS OF NEW INDUSTIRAL POLICY

1. Industrial licensing has been cancelled expect 1. Security 2. Strategic. 3.environmental concerns

2. Public sectors reduced from17to 3

3. Atomic energy & railways kept under government

4. Govt. offered share holdings to financial institutions, public workers

5. No private permission is required to invest in de-licensing sector

6. FDI is the supplement of domestic investment

7. FDI provide technological innovation

8. Access to global managerial skills optimum use of nature man resources

9. Liberalized t o attract MNS and private sector

10. mining and communications high way construction thrown to private

11. Globalization means integrating national economy with world economy

12. Goods , services capital labour resources can move freely from one nation to another

STEPS

1. Opening of economy to FDI by providing facilities to foreign companies to invest in different fields of economic activity

2. Removing restrictions an obstacles to the entry o multinational company in India

3. Allowing Indian companies to collaborative other countries

4. Carry out massive import

5. Opting exchange rate adjustments to export

PROBLEMS IN NEW INDUSTRIAL POLICY

1. Major share went to core industries

2. Infract rue was untouched

3. Gap between developed and developing increased

4. major share went to developed states

5. 23%ms 17% guj7% AP 6% TN&UP 8%

N.E states only 1%

INDUSTRIAL REGIONS

CRITERIA FOR IDENTIFYING INDUSTRIAL REGIONS

1.number of industrial units

2. Number of industrial workers

3. Quantity of power used

4.output

5.value added by manufacturing

MUMBAI PUNE REGION

1. Extended from Mumbai to Sholapur

2. Connect Kolaba Ahmednagar, Satara Sangle Jalgaon

FAVOURABLE FACTORS

1. Cotton hinterland

2. Moist climate

3. Opening of Suez canal

4. Mumbai port facility

5. Hydel power from western Ghats

6. Opening of Mumbai high

7. Nuclear power plant at Tarapur

8. Industries:

Engineering goods, oil refineries, petrochemicals, leather goods, synthetic, plastic, drugs, fertilizers

HUGLI INDUTRIAL REGION

ADVANTAGES

1.extend from Bansberia to Birlanagar

2. Opening of Hugli port

3.well connected with railways

4. Development of tea plantation, jute cultivation

5.presence of coal fields, iron mines DVC

6. Cheap labour from up &Bihar

7. industries: jute , paper, textiles, electrical, fertilizers Hindustan motors, diesel locomotives at Chttaranjan . Oil refinery at Haldia

BANGALORE –CHENNAI REGION

1. Extend from Bangalore to Madurai

2. Power from Pykara Hydel power

3. Industries: cotton textile, eng. goods, HAL , HMT, at Bangalore , rubber industry, petroleum oil refinery at Mumbai

GUJARAT INDUSTRIAL REGION

1. Extend from Ahmedabad to Surat

2. Large cotton growing area

3. Nearness to market

4. Oil fields at Ankaleswar Vadodar Jamnagar

5. Kandla port facility

6. Koyali oil refinery

7. Kakrapara nuclear plant

CHOTANAGAPUR INDUSTRIAL REGION

1. Extend from Jharkhand To Orissa

2. Heavy metallurgical industries

3. Coal at DVC

4. Iron ore, limestone coal fields

5. Steel plants at Jamshed Pur , Burnpur Kulti Durgapur ,Bokaro ,Rourkela

6. Hydel. Thermal power from DVC

7. Labor from Bihar, Bengal

8. Industries: engineering, machine tools, fertilizers, cement paper locomotives

9. Places are Ranchi, Dhanbad, Sindri, Hazaribagh Jamshedpur

VIZAK GUNTUR INDUSTRIAL REGION

1 extend from Vizak To Kurnool

2. Port facility from Vizak, Machilipatnam

3. Dev. Agriculture, hinterland mineral

4. Godavari coal fields, shipbuilding at Vizak. Petroleum oil refinery . Lead zinc steel industry at Vizak

GURGAON-DELHI MEERUT REGION

1.fast growth ,

2. Away from minerals

3.light industries

4. Electrical, woolen textiles, hosiery goods, sugar mills, cycle agriculture implements

Software, glass leather goods

KOLLAM –THIRUVANANTHA PURAM

1. Extend from Trivandrum to Alappuzha

2. Plantation agriculture,

3. Hydel power

4. No minerals

5. Ag. Product processing

6. Cotton textiles, sugar, rubber, match box glass fish based industries food processing

7. Oil refinery at cochin

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CBSE Class-12 Revision Notes and Key Points

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