Transport And Communication class 12 Notes Geography

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CBSE class 12 Geography Transport And Communication class 12 Notes Geography in PDF are available for free download in myCBSEguide mobile app. The best app for CBSE students now provides Transport And Communication class 12 Notes Geography latest chapter wise notes for quick preparation of CBSE board exams and school based annual examinations. Class 12 Geography notes on chapter 10 Transport And Communication Geography are also available for download in CBSE Guide website

CBSE Guide Transport And Communication class 12 Notes Geography

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12 Geography notes Chapter 10 Transport And Communication

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CBSE Class 12 Geography (Book-2)
Chapter-10

Transport And Communication class 12 Notes Geography

CLASSIFICATION OF TRANSPORT AND COMMUNICATION

LAND

1. ROAD  2. RAILWAY  3. PIPE LINES

WATER

1.  INLAND     2. OCEANIC

AIR

1. DOMESTIC  2. INTERNATIONAL

LAND TRANSPORT

ROAD TRANSPORT

1. Total road length is 33.1 lakh km

2. 80% passengers, and 70%  of freight are carried by roads

3. Shai road connect Indus valley to Sone valley

4. It is renamed as grad trunk road

5. At present it connects Amritsar,  Kolkata( nh1 nh2)

CLASSIFICATION OF RAODS

I.  NATIONAL HIGH WAYS

1. Constructed and maintained by central govt.

2. Meant for interstate transport

3. Movement of defense men and material

4. Connect state capitals

5. Total length is 65769 km

6. Accounts 2% of road length

7. Carry 40% of traffic

8. Golden quadrilateral

5846 km , 4/6/lane. High density traffic, connect metro cities, time distance and cost distance decreased n-s corridor connect Srinagar to Kanya kumari (4076 km)

east west corridor connect Porbandar to Silchar ( 3640)

STATE HIGH WAYS

1. Constructed and maintained by state CPWD

2. Connect state capitals with Dist. Hqs.

3.  account for 4% of road length

DISTRICT ROADS

1. Connect Dist,. Hq with other towns

2.  account for 14% of road length

RURAL ROADS

1. Connect rural areas

2.  accounts 80% of road length

3. Regional variation  in road density

4. Influenced by terrain  and climate

OTHER ROADS

BORDER ROADS AND INTERNATIONAL HIGHWAYS

1. Bro was started in 1960

2.  help to develop economy

3.  strengthen the defense

4.  improvement of strategic points

5.  it is a premier multifaceted ted construction agency

6. Highest road way connects  Manali –Leh  with4270 mts. altitude

7. Maintain harmonious  relation with neighboring countries

HIGHEST ROAD DENSITY IS 387.24 /100SQ.KM  INKERALA LOWEST  ROAD DENSITY IS 10.48 /100 SQ KM  IN J&K I T IS HIGH IN NORTHERN  PLAINS AND LOW IN  MOUNTAIN AREAS

FACTORS  INCLUENCIN ROAD WAYS

1. Terrain  2. Climate, 3. Economic development. 4. Industries  5. Cities and towns

RAILWAYS

1. The first railway line started in 1853  between  Bombay and thane

2. It is the largest  govt. Sector with the length of 63221 km

3.  IT IS DIVIDED INTO 16 ZONES

1. NORTHERN – NEW DELHI  2. NORTH EASTERN – GORKPUR 3. NE FRONTIER –MALIGOAN  4. N.WESTERN- JAIPUR, 5. N.CENTRAL- ALLAHABAD 6.WESTERN CHURHC GATE MUKBAI 7. W. CENTRAL – JABAL PUR  8. CENTRAL CST MUMBAI 9. E.CENTRAL –HAJIPUR 10. EASTERN-KOL 11. S.WESTERN –HUBLI 12. S.CENTRAL- SECEUDERABAD  13. SE CENTRAL-BILASPUR 14. SEASTERN-KOLKOTA  15.SOUTHERNCHENNAI  16. EAST COAST- BBSR

2. HIGHEST COAL IS CARRIED BY RAILWAYS

3. RAILWAY GAUGES  :  broad gauge :1.676 mts. 46807 km 74.145 meter gauge: 1.ooo mts. 13290 km 21.02% narrow gauge 0.672mts & 0.610 mts.   4.94% 3124 km

RECENT DEVELOPMENTS IN RAILWAYS

1. Conversion of meter and narrow gauges in to broad gauge

2. Stem engines are replaced by diesel and electrical engines

3. Introduction of metro railways

4. Use of CNG

5. Introduction of internet

6. Computer reservation

7.  container services

WATER TRANSPORT

ADVANTAGES

1. Cheapest means of transport

2. Least consumption of energy

3. Suitable for  heavy bulky goods

4. No friction

5. Eco friendly

6. There are two types

Inland water ways

1. Cheapest mode of transport

2. Competition from road ways and railways

3. Water diversion from  the rivers cause less navigable

4. Total 14500 km of navigable water

5. Account 1% of transport

6. It consists of rivers, canals , backwaters creeks

7. 3700 km of navigable rivers are available

8. 2000 km actually used

9. Canals are controlled by inland water way authority

10. There are three inland waterways   in India

1.nw.1 Allahabad to Haldia – 1620 km  most important waterway , up to Patna mechanized boats and up to Hardwar  manual boats

It is divided in to three segments 1. Haldia to Farakka 560 km 2. Farakka to Patna 460 km 3. Patna to Allahabad 600 km

2.NW-2 Sadiya to Dubri  891 km steamers can travel up to Dibrugarh

3. NW -3 Kottapuram to Kollam 205 km  it includes 168 km west coast canal and Udyogamandal canal

Back waters of Kerala also important waterways

OCEAN ROUTES

India has coastline about 7517 km there are 12 major ports and 185 minor ports

95 % of India foreign trade and 70 % of value  is trade takes place through sea ways

AIR TRANSPORT

ADVANTAGES

1. Fastest means of transport

2. Connect remote areas

3.  no need to maintain routs  and construct

4. Suitable for emergency times

5. All continents are connected by air ways

6. Suitable for difficult terrain

7. Reduce travel time

8. Maintained by airport authority

9. It maintains 126 minor airports 11 international air ports and 86 domestic airports

10. 29 civil defense enclaves  in defense service also maintained by the authority

There are three divisions

1. Air India: provide international air services

2. Connects all continents

3. Delhi and Mumbai  air ports accounts for 52% of air service

Indian airlines connect Indian subcontinent

It is the part of air India

Pawan Hans helicopter services

serves in north eastern states

PIPELINES

ADVANTAGES

1. Most convenient and efficient mode of transporting liquids and gases over long  distance

2.  least consumption of energy

3. Suitable for mountain areas and sea bottom

4. Asia‟s cross country pipe line is constructed between Naharkatia oil field and  Barauni oil refinery with the length of 1157 km, it was extended up to Kanpur in 1966

5. Other pipe lines Are Ankaleswar to Koyali , Mumbai High To Koyali Hazira  Vijaipur Jagdishpur

6. Salaiya to Mathura – 1256 km

7. Numaligarh to Siliguri 660km

COMMUNICATION

It is divided into personal- mobile mass radio, tv

Personal communication has become most important at present

User can contact with the customer directly

Fastest means of communication

Communication revolution came into world through internet

Mass communication consists of radio, tv and satellite communication

Satellite communication is the recent development most useful at the time of emergency. When all other communications are failed it is the only communication which can be used.

Transport And Communication class 12 Notes Geography

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CBSE Class-12 Revision Notes and Key Points

Transport And Communication class 12 Notes Geography. CBSE quick revision note for class-12 Geography, Chemistry, Math’s, Biology and other subject are very helpful to revise the whole syllabus during exam days. The revision notes covers all important formulas and concepts given in the chapter. Even if you wish to have an overview of a chapter, quick revision notes are here to do if for you. These notes will certainly save your time during stressful exam days.

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