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  • 1 answers

Gaurav Seth 41 minutes ago (2898529)

Demerits of democracy:

  • Democracy is all about political competition and power play. There is no scope for morality.
  • Consultation in a democracy from many people leads to delays.
  • Not knowing the best interest of the people by the elected leaders leads to bad decisions.
  • Democracy leads to corruption for it is based on electoral competition.
  • 1 answers

Gaurav Seth 40 minutes ago (2898529)

Let the CP be Rs x
Loss = 12% of x

So, SP = CP - Loss
            = x- 12x/100
            =88x/100

According to ur Question,,

88x/100 = 2024
⇒x = (2024×100)/88
      = 2300 

So, CP = Rs 2300

Now, for 12% gain,
Gain = 12% of 2300
        =(12/100)×2300
        =276 
Gain = Rs 276

So, SP = CP + gain 
            = 2300 +276
            =2576

SP = Rs 2576

  • 1 answers

Gaurav Seth 39 minutes ago (2898529)

  1. Tissue that forms the inner lining of our mouth → squamous epithilium
  2. Tissue that connects muscle to bone in humans → tendons
  3. Tissue that transports food in plants → Phloem
  4. Tissue that stores fat in our body → Adipose tissue
  5. Connective tissue with a fluid matrix → Blood
  6. Tissue present in the brain → Nervous tissue
  • 1 answers

Shafaqat Aara 52 minutes ago (9852831)

Nepoleon bonaparte was a military commander ,who rose to power in 1804 .
  • 2 answers

Kamal Pareek 38 minutes ago (9889653)

Thankyou for your answer

Siddhant Singh Rawat 46 minutes ago (9889769)

I don't know
  • 0 answers
  • 3 answers

Mukul Kumar 3 minutes ago (8434980)

A GALVANOMETER IS A DEVICE USED TO DETECT THE FLOW TO ELECTRIC CURRENT FLOWING THROUGH A COIL.

Gaurav Seth 37 minutes ago (2898529)

A galvanometer is an electromechanical instrument used for detecting and indicating an electric current. A galvanometer works as an actuator, by producing a rotary deflection of a pointer, in response to electric current flowing through a coil in a constant magnetic field.

Raj🏏 Roy 57 minutes ago (8850086)

ukf7jihg from co to go go
  • 1 answers

Gaurav Seth 35 minutes ago (2898529)

Q u e s t i o n : Write the name of any two objects which can only roll
A n s w e r : write and two
coin , markers , wheels , bowl, pencil etc can slide as well as roll.

  • 1 answers

Gaurav Seth 34 minutes ago (2898529)

As a finance manager of the company, I would advice the directors to issue the preference shares as by issuing preference shares, a company is benefited in the following ways.

1. Lifetime retention - A company need is not bound to repay the preference share capital amount during its lifetime.

2. No charge on company's assets - The preference shareholders have no right on the assets of the concerned company. So in this manner, they have no right to claim any amount (by selling-off company's assets) in case the company fails to make dividend payments.

3. No obligation - In case, the company incurs losses, then it is not required to pay dividend to its preference shareholders. 

On the other hand, debentures will not be chosen because of the following demerits of debentures.

1. ​ The legal boundation of a company to pay interest on debentures increases its payment obligations .
2. The borrowing capacity of a company gets limited with further issue of debentures.

  • 1 answers

Jhansi Lakshmi G 29 minutes ago (9790050)

Loose
  • 0 answers
  • 1 answers

Gaurav Seth 31 minutes ago (2898529)

The Law of Independent Assortment states that during a dihybrid cross (crossing of two pairs of traits), an assortment of each pair of traits is independent of the other. In other words, during gamete formation, one pair of trait segregates from another pair of traits independently. This gives each pair of characters a chance of expression.

In the dihybrid cross, he chose round-yellow seed and wrinkled green seed and crossed them. He obtained only round yellow seeds in the F1 generation. Later, self-pollination of Fprogeny gave four different combinations of seeds in the F2 generation. He obtained round-yellow, wrinkled-yellow, round green and wrinkled green seeds in the phenotypic ratio 9:3:3:1.

The phenotypic ratio 3:1 of yellow: green colour and the ratio 3:1 of the round: wrinkled seed shape during monohybrid cross was retained in the dihybrid cross as well. Thus, he concluded that characters are distributed independently and inherited independently. Based on this observation, he developed his third law – Law of Independent Assortment.

The dihybrid crosses between the parental genotype RRYY (round yellow seeds) and rryy (green wrinkled seeds) explains the law. Here the chances of formation of gametes with the gene R and the <a href="https://byjus.com/biology/genes/">gene </a>r are 50:50. Also, the chances of formation of gametes with the gene Y and the gene y are 50:50. Thus, each gamete should have either R or r and Y or y.

The Law of Independent Assortment states that the segregation of R and r is independent of the segregation of Y and y. This results in four types of gametes RY, Ry, rY, and ry. These combinations of alleles are different from their parental combination (RR, YY, rr and yy).

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Gaurav Seth 29 minutes ago (2898529)

On July 7, HRD Minister Ramesh Pokhriyal announced a major CBSE syllabus reduction with 30% of the syllabus slashed for the year 2020-21 for classes 9 to 12 because of the reduction in classroom teaching time due to the Covid-19 pandemic and lockdown.

CBSE has rationalized the syllabus with the help of suggestions from NCERT and the same has been notified by a new CBSE notification as well.

Click on the given link:

<a data-toggle="collapse" href="http://cbseacademic.nic.in/Revisedcurriculum_2021.html#collapse1">Revised Senior Secondary Curriculum (XI-XII)</a>

  • 1 answers

Gaurav Seth 26 minutes ago (2898529)

following are the two sources of finance that an established company can opt to expand its production capacity-
- Issue of shares- the company can issue share (equity and preference) as per its requirement in order to finance its expansion project. company has to pay an annual dividend on these shares. the decision regarding providing dividend is totally in the hands of management.

- issue of debentures- another source through which a company can finance its project is Debentures, it is th fixed charge liability against which company has to pay interest on regular intervals. debenture may be issued for short term and long term period but practically it is issued for a long term period.

other sources are loan from banks, loans from financial institutions etc
 

  • 3 answers

Pranya Talwar an hour ago (6780410)

Goan cookies or biscuits are called bolinhars

Gaurav Seth an hour ago (2898529)

Different varieties of bread are – bol, cakes and bolinhas. Every variety of bread is associated with different occasions. The sweet bread, bol is used as a marriage gift. The sandwiches are made on engagements. The cakes and bolinhas form an essential part of Christmas and other festivals.

Yogita Ingle an hour ago (2577571)

Different varieties of bread are – bol, cakes and bolinhas. Every variety of bread is associated with different occasions. The sweet bread, bol is used as a marriage gift. The sandwiches are made on engagements. The cakes and bolinhas form an essential part of Christmas and other festivals.

  • 2 answers

Yogita Ingle an hour ago (2577571)

 

Merits are as :
1. Financial institutions provide long-term finance, which are not provided by commercial banks.
2. Obtaining loan from financial institutions increases the goodwill of the borrowing company in the capital market. Consequently, such a company can raise funds easily from other sources as well.

3. Besides providing funds, many of the institutions provide financial, managerial and technical advice and consultancy to business firms.

4. As repayment of loan can be made in easy installments, it does not prove to be much of a burden on the business; and

5. The funds are made available even during the periods of depression, when other sources of finance are not available.

Limitations are :

1. Financial institutions are follows rigid criteria for grant of loans. Too many formalities make the procedure time-consuming and expensive.

2. Certain restrictions such as restriction on dividend payment are imposed on the powers of the borrowing company by the financial institutions.

3. Financial institutions may have their nominees on the Board of Director’s of the borrowing company there by restricting the powers of the company.

Gaurav Seth an hour ago (2898529)

Merits are as :

 

1. Financial institutions provide long-term finance, which are not provided by commercial banks.

2. Obtaining loan from financial institutions increases the goodwill of the borrowing company in the capital market. Consequently, such a company can raise funds easily from other sources as well.

3. Besides providing funds, many of the institutions provide financial, managerial and technical advice and consultancy to business firms.

4. As repayment of loan can be made in easy installments, it does not prove to be much of a burden on the business; and

5. The funds are made available even during the periods of depression, when other sources of finance are not available.

Limitations are :

1. Financial institutions are follows rigid criteria for grant of loans. Too many formalities make the procedure time-consuming and expensive.

2. Certain restrictions such as restriction on dividend payment are imposed on the powers of the borrowing company by the financial institutions.

3. Financial institutions may have their nominees on the Board of Director’s of the borrowing company there by restricting the powers of the company.

  • 2 answers

Yogita Ingle an hour ago (2577571)

Retained Profits: For any company, the amount of earnings retained within the business has a direct impact on the amount of dividends. Profit re-invested as retained earnings is profit that could have been paid as a dividend. The management of many companies believes that retained earnings are funds which do not cost anything, although this is not true. However, it is true that the use of retained earnings as a source of funds does not lead to a payment of cash. The dividend policy of the company is in practice determined by the directors. From their standpoint, retained earnings are an attractive source of finance because investment projects can be undertaken without involving either the shareholders or any outsiders. The use of retained earnings as opposed to new shares or debentures avoids issue costs. The use of retained earnings avoids the possibility of a change in control resulting from an issue of new shares. Another factor that may be of importance is the financial and taxation position of the company’s shareholders. For example, because of taxation considerations, they would rather make a capital profit (which will only be taxed when shares are sold) than receive current income, and then finance through retained earnings would be preferred to other methods.

Advantages of Retained Earnings

  • The management of many companies believe that retained earnings are funds which do not cost anything, although this is not true. However, it is true that the use of retained earnings as a source of funds does not lead to a payment of cash.
  • The dividend policy of the company is in practice determined by the directors. From their standpoint, retained earnings are an attractive source of finance because investment projects can be undertaken without involving either the shareholders or any outsiders.
  • The use of retained earnings as opposed to new shares or debentures avoids issue costs. The use of retained earnings avoids the possibility of a change in control resulting from an issue of new shares.
  • Another factor that may be of importance is the financial and taxation position of the company’s shareholders. If, for example, because of taxation considerations, they would rather make a capital profit (which will only be taxed when shares are sold) than receive current income, then finance through retained earnings would be preferred to other methods.

Disadvantages of Retained Earnings

  • A company must restrict its self-financing through retained profits because shareholders should be paid a reasonable dividend, in line with realistic expectations, even if the directors would rather keep the funds for re-investing.
  • At the same time, a company that is looking for extra funds will not be expected by investors (such as banks) to pay generous dividends, nor over-generous salaries to owner-directors.
  • Scope of retained earnings is limited by amount of profits. A loss incurring firm has no source called retained earnings.

Gaurav Seth an hour ago (2898529)

Retained Profits: For any company, the amount of earnings retained within the business has a direct impact on the amount of dividends. Profit re-invested as retained earnings is profit that could have been paid as a dividend. The management of many companies believes that retained earnings are funds which do not cost anything, although this is not true. However, it is true that the use of retained earnings as a source of funds does not lead to a payment of cash. The dividend policy of the company is in practice determined by the directors. From their standpoint, retained earnings are an attractive source of finance because investment projects can be undertaken without involving either the shareholders or any outsiders. The use of retained earnings as opposed to new shares or debentures avoids issue costs. The use of retained earnings avoids the possibility of a change in control resulting from an issue of new shares. Another factor that may be of importance is the financial and taxation position of the company’s shareholders. For example, because of taxation considerations, they would rather make a capital profit (which will only be taxed when shares are sold) than receive current income, and then finance through retained earnings would be preferred to other methods.

Advantages of Retained Earnings

  • The management of many companies believe that retained earnings are funds which do not cost anything, although this is not true. However, it is true that the use of retained earnings as a source of funds does not lead to a payment of cash.
  • The dividend policy of the company is in practice determined by the directors. From their standpoint, retained earnings are an attractive source of finance because investment projects can be undertaken without involving either the shareholders or any outsiders.
  • The use of retained earnings as opposed to new shares or debentures avoids issue costs. The use of retained earnings avoids the possibility of a change in control resulting from an issue of new shares.

 

  • Another factor that may be of importance is the financial and taxation position of the company’s shareholders. If, for example, because of taxation considerations, they would rather make a capital profit (which will only be taxed when shares are sold) than receive current income, then finance through retained earnings would be preferred to other methods.

Disadvantages of Retained Earnings

 

  • A company must restrict its self-financing through retained profits because shareholders should be paid a reasonable dividend, in line with realistic expectations, even if the directors would rather keep the funds for re-investing.
  • At the same time, a company that is looking for extra funds will not be expected by investors (such as banks) to pay generous dividends, nor over-generous salaries to owner-directors.
  • Scope of retained earnings is limited by amount of profits. A loss incurring firm has no source called retained earnings.
  • 2 answers

Gaurav Seth an hour ago (2898529)

Balanced equation for dehydration of ethanol by hot concentrated sulfuric acid

  • The reactants involved in the given reaction is ethanol with the chemical formula .
  • When it is treated with hot concentrated sulfuric acid at 443K, it leads to the formation of ethene and water.
  • As the water molecule present in the ethanol is removed, this process is called dehydration.
  • As hot concentrated sulfuric acid is used as a catalyst, it is not added in the reactant side.
  • The balanced chemical equation involved in the process is as follows:

Yogita Ingle an hour ago (2577571)

  • The reactants involved in the given reaction is ethanol with the chemical formula .
  • When it is treated with hot concentrated sulfuric acid at 443K, it leads to the formation of ethene and water.
  • As the water molecule present in the ethanol is removed, this process is called dehydration.
  • As hot concentrated sulfuric acid is used as a catalyst, it is not added in the reactant side.
  • The balanced chemical equation involved in the process is as follows:

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