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Aryan Agrawal 5 hours ago

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Aryan Agrawal 6 hours ago

DEVELOPMENT 1. The idea of development or progress has always been with us. 2. We have aspirations or desires about what we would like to do and how we would like to live. 3. In this chapter, we shall make a beginning for understanding development. 4. It is only through a democratic political process that these hopes and possibilities can be achieved in real life. WHAT DEVELOPMENT PROMISES – DIFFERENT PEOPLE, DIFFERENT GOALS: 1. People seek things that are most important for them, i.e., that which can fulfill their aspirations or desires. 2. In fact, at times, two persons or groups of persons may seek things which are conflicting. 3. So two things are quite clear: (i) Different persons can have different developmental goals. (ii) What may be developed for one may not be developed for the other. It may even be destructive for the other. INCOME AND OTHER GOALS: 1. What people desire are regular work, better wages and decent price for their crops or other products that they produce. In other words, they want more income. 2. People also seek things like equal treatment, freedom, security, and respect for others. 3. In some cases, these may be more important than more income or more consumption because material goods are not all that you need to live. 4. Money, or material things that one can buy with it, is one of the factors on which our life depends on non-material things mentioned above. 5. There are many things that are not easily measured but they mean a lot to our lives. These are often ignored. 6. However, it would be wrong to conclude that what cannot be measured is not important. 7. Similarly, for development people look at a mix of goals. 8. The developmental goals that people have are not only about better income but also about other important things in life. NATIONAL DEVELOPMENT: 1. It is very important to keep in mind that different persons could have different as well as conflicting notions of a country’s development. 2. National development means thinking about fair and just path for all, whether there is a better way of doing things. HOW TO COMPARE DIFFERENT COUNTRIES OR STATES? 1. Usually, we take one or more important characteristics of persons and compare them based on these characteristics. 2. For comparing countries, their income is considered to be one of the most important attributes. 3. Countries with higher income are more developed than others with less income. 4. The income of the country is the income of all the residents of the country. This gives us the total income of the country. 5. For comparison between countries, total income is not such useful measure. 6. Hence, we compare the average income which is the country divided by its total population. The average income is also called per capita income. 7. In World Development Report brought out by the World Bank, this 8. Countries with per capita income of USD 12736 per annum and above in 2013, are called rich countries and those with per capita income of USD 1570 or less are called low-income countries. 9. India comes in the category of low middle-income countries because its per capita income in 2013 was just US$1570 per income. INCOME AND OTHER CRITERIA: 1. Let us compare the per capita income of Maharashtra, Kerala, and Bihar. 2. Maharashtra has the highest per capita income and Bihar is at the bottom. 3. So, if per capita income were to be used as the measure of development, Maharashtra will be considered the most developed state of the three. PUBLIC FACILITIES: 1. Money in your pocket cannot buy all the goods and services that you may need to live well. 2. Income by itself is not a completely adequate indicator of material goods and services that citizens are able to use. 3. Normally, your money cannot buy the pollution-free environment or ensure that you get unadulterated medicines unless you can afford to shift to a community that already has all these things. 4. Money may also not be able to protect you from infectious disease unless the whole of your community takes preventive steps. HUMAN DEVELOPMENT – Development of an individual in such a way that he can able to earn and fulfill his materialistic desire. SUSTAINABILITY OF DEVELOPMENTS: 1. Since the second half of the twentieth century, a number of scientists have been warning that the present type, and levels, of development are not sustainable. 2. Resources are replenished by nature as in the case of crops and plants. 3. In the case of groundwater, if we use more than what is being replenished by rain then we would be overusing this resources. 4. Consequences of environmental degradation do not respect national or state boundaries; this issue is no longer region or nation-specific. 5. Sustainability of developments comparatively a new area of knowledge in which scientists, economists, philosophers and other social scientists are working together.
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Aryan Agrawal 6 hours ago

It is a system of power sharing among governments at different levels. For example, a general government for the entire country and governments at provincial or regional levels. In India, we refer to it as the Central Government, State Governments, Local body governments etc. Digraj Singh rajput sir se padho
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Aryan Agrawal 5 hours ago

Of course! Here are some key notes for Chapter 1: Development in Economics: ### Introduction to Development - **Development:** The process of improving the quality of life and living standards of people. - **Key Indicators:** GDP per capita, literacy rates, life expectancy, etc., are used to measure development. ### Sustainable Development - **Sustainable Development:** Meeting the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs. - **Economic, Social, Environmental Aspects:** Balancing economic growth, social inclusion, and environmental sustainability. ### Economic Development - **Economic Development:** Increase in the standard of living of a population. - **Factors:** Education, healthcare, infrastructure, technology, political stability, etc., contribute to economic development. ### Human Development - **Human Development Index (HDI):** Measures a country's average achievements in three basic aspects of human development: health (life expectancy at birth), education (mean years of schooling, expected years of schooling), and standard of living (GDP per capita). ### Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) and Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) - **MDGs (2000-2015):** 8 international development goals focused on reducing poverty, hunger, gender inequality, etc. - **SDGs (2015-2030):** 17 global goals to achieve a better and more sustainable future for all, addressing poverty, inequality, climate change, etc. ### Economic Growth vs. Economic Development - **Economic Growth:** Increase in a country's output of goods and services over time. - **Economic Development:** Broadening of people's choices and opportunities, along with an increase in their well-being. ### Factors Affecting Development - **Historical Factors:** Colonialism, wars, etc. - **Social Factors:** Education, healthcare, gender equality. - **Economic Factors:** Infrastructure, industrialization, investment. - **Political Factors:** Stability, governance, corruption. These notes should give you a good overview of Chapter 1 on Development in Economics!

Ankit Kumar 20 hours ago

No notes

Ankit Kumar 20 hours ago

Describe the vertical distribution of power

Rupesh Yadav 1 day, 4 hours ago

Notes of economics chapter 1 immediately send karo
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Anshu Singh 2 days, 20 hours ago

Power sharing helps to maintain a balance of power among various institutions and also keep a check on how it is exercised.

Amrit Raj 2 days, 21 hours ago

What is power sharing?
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Rohit Maurya 2 days ago

*It is declaration signed by world leaders in 1992 at U.N.C.E.D(United Nations conference Environment Development). *It is find to environmental damage, poverty, disease through global corporation on common interest. *The main purpose of these Agenda 21 is that all local government draw our local Agenda 21.

Abdul Wasi 3 days, 5 hours ago

Galdi beg

Abdul Wasi 3 days, 5 hours ago

Answer
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Divyansh Kumar 3 days, 5 hours ago

Certainly! Here are the major five reasons for land degradation: 1. **Deforestation**: The removal of trees leads to a loss of soil structure and nutrients, increasing vulnerability to erosion. 2. **Overgrazing**: Livestock, when too densely populated, can strip vegetation cover, leading to soil exposure and erosion. 3. **Unsustainable Farming Practices**: Practices like monoculture planting, not using crop rotation, and excessive plowing can deplete soil nutrients and lead to degradation. 4. **Industrial & Urban Expansion**: The conversion of land for industrial use or urban development often leads to soil compaction, contamination, and loss of fertile land. 5. **Irrigation Mismanagement**: Over-irrigation can lead to waterlogging and salinization, while under-irrigation can cause soil dryness and desertification. These factors contribute significantly to the degradation of land, affecting its productivity and ecosystem health. Sustainable land management practices are essential to mitigate these effects.
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Shourya Tanwar 3 days, 21 hours ago

1. Texture: Alluvial soil is typically loamy in texture, which means that it is a mixture of sand, silt, and clay. This texture makes it easy to till and work with. 2. Color: Alluvial soil is typically brown or black in color. The color of the soil depends on the type of sediment that it is made up of. 3. Fertility: Alluvial soil is a very fertile soil. This is because it is rich in organic matter and nutrients. The nutrients in alluvial soil come from the rocks and minerals that are eroded from the land and deposited by the rivers and streams. 4. Drainage: Alluvial soil typically has good drainage. This is because the sand and silt in the soil allow water to drain through it easily. 5. Location: Alluvial soil is typically found in floodplains and river valleys. This is because these are the areas where rivers and streams deposit their sediments.

Shourya Tanwar 3 days, 21 hours ago

Hoho
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Satyam 1 week ago

The French Revolution introduced the concept of nationalism, which united the people to overthrow the government. The revolutionaries defined the nation subjectively and metaphysically, based on the people's will to live together as a sovereign unit.

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