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CBSE Guide Improvement in Food Resources class 9 Notes
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9 Science notes Chapter 15 Improvement in Food Resources
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CBSE Class 9 Science
CHAPTER – 15
Improvement in food resources
1. Food Resources: Cereals (Wheat, rice, maize, millets and sorghum) provide us carbohydrates; Pulses (Grams, pea and lentil) provide us proteins; Oil seeds (Soya bean, ground nut, sesame, and castor) provide us fats; Vegetables, spices and fruits provide us a range of minerals, nucleic acids and vitamins.
In addition to these food crops, fodder crops like berseem, oats or sudan grass are raised as food for the livestock are called as fodder crops.
2. The Kharif crops: The crops grown in rainy season are called as Kharif crops (Paddy, Soya bean, pigeon pea and maize). They are grown from June to October.
3. The Rabi crops: The crops grown in winter season are called Rabi crops (Wheat, gram, peas, and mustard). They are grown November to April.
Compare Kharif crops and Rabi crops:
|1.||Kharif crops||June to October ( Rainy Season)||Paddy, Soya bean, and maize|
|2.||Rabi crops||Nov. to April ( winter season)||Wheat, gram, peas, and mustard|
4. The Green Revolution: Food supplies are generally as proteins, carbohydrates, fats, minerals, nucleic acids and vitamins in all living organisms. Indian population is growing enormously. Green Revolution is the need of the hour to increase food-grain production.
5. Sustainable Practices: For sustained livelihood, one should undertake mixed farming, inter cropping, and integrated farming practices, for example, combining agriculture with livestock/ poultry/ fisheries/bee-keeping. The major group of activities for improving crop yield can be classified as: Crop varietal improvement, Crop production improvement, Crop protection improvement
6. The Crop varietal improvement:
a) Hybridization: It refers to crossing between genetically dissimilar plants;It is all to get higher yield, improved quality, biotic and abiotic resistance, change in maturity duration, wider adaptability and desirable agronomic characteristics.
|1||Inter varietal Hybridization||between different varieties|
|2||Inter specific Hybridization||between different species|
|3||Inter generic Hybridization||between different genera|
|4||Genetically Modified Crops (GMC).||Another way of improving the crop is by introducing a gene that would provide desired characteristic.|
7. The Crop production improvement: They include” no cost production”,” low cost production” or “high cost production” practices.
- Nutrients (Sixteen elements are required for growth are called as essential elements Carbon, oxygen, hydrogen+ Macro nutrients & Micronutrients. They increase the yield)
|SNo.||Macro nutrient||Micro nutrient|
|1.||Six elements are required in larger quantity||Other seven elements are required in small quantity|
|2.||Ex.Nitrogen, phosphorus, calcium, Potassium, magnesium, sulphur||Ex. Iron, manganese, boron, zink, copper, molybdinum, chlorine|
- Manure & Fertilizers:
|1||Manure is prepared by the decomposition of animal excreta and plant waste is called as Humus. It decides the texture of the soil.|
Compost: Farm waste, cow dung etc.
Vermi compost: Compost prepared by using earthworms.
|Fertilizers are commercially produced plant nutrients. Excess fertilizers destroy the soil fertility.|
Organic farming: No use of chemicals fertilizers, herbicides, pesticides etc.
Culturing blue green algae, neem leaves, healthy cropping systems.
|2||It is cheap and prepared in rural homes and fields||It is costly and is prepared in factories|
|3||It is voluminous and bulky||It is compact and concentrated|
|4||It is inconvenient to store, transport, handle.||It is easy to store, transport, handle.|
|5||It is not nutrient specific.||It is nutrient specific and can provide specifically nitrogen, phosphorus etc.|
|6||Add great humus to the soil||Does not add humus to the soil.|
3. Irrigation: India has variety of water resources: Wells, canals, river lift system, tanks, rainwater harvesting, water shedding management to increase in ground water levels and to check the water flowing away to the sea. Planning to reduce soil erosion.
4. Cropping patterns:
|S N.||Mixed cropping||Inter-cropping||Crop rotation|
|1||Two or more crops Grown simultaneously on the same piece of land||Two or more crops grown simultaneously on the same piece >of land in a definite pattern||Growing different crops on a piece of land in a pre-planned succession|
|2||Ex. Wheat+ Gram Wheat+ Mustard; Wheat+ gram; Groundnut+sunflower.||Soyabean + maize/bajra + Cowpea||Two or three crops can be grown in a year depending upon the duration.|
|3||A type of insurance against failure of one of the crops.||A few rows of one crop alternate with a few rows of a second crop. Crops are selected such that their nutrient requirements are different. This ensures the maximum utilization of the nutrients supplied and prevents pests and diseases spreading in the crop field||The availability of moisture and Irrigation facilities decides the choice of the crop to be cultivated.|
8. Crop protection improvement/ management: Field crops are infested by large number of weeds, insects pests, diseases & storage of grains
|SN.||Weeds||Insect pests||Diseases||Storage of grains|
|1||Weeds are unwanted plants in the crop field||Insect pest is nuisance in the crop field||Disease is caused by pathogens in the field||Different factors are responsible.|
|2||Weeds take up nutrients and reduce the growth||Insect pest affect the health of crop and reduce the yield.||Diseases alter the physiology of crops and reduce the yield||Different factors reduce the quality of stored grains|
|3||Ex. Xanthium, Parthenium||Ex. Caterpillars, dragonfly||Ex. Bacteria, Virus||Botic factors: insects, rodents, fungi Abiotic factors: moisture & temperature|
|4||Removal of weeds at an early stage is recommended.|
|Spread of chemicals such as pesticides||Spread of chemicals to kill pathogens||Systematic management of ware house.|
9. Animal Husbandry: It is a scientific management of animal livestock, includes feeding, breeding and diseases control. Animal-based farming includes cattle farming, Poultry farming, fish farming, and bee Keeping.
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