Improvement in Food Resources class 9 Notes Science

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CBSE class 9 Science Chapter 15 Improvement in Food Resources notes in PDF are available for free download in myCBSEguide mobile app. The best app for CBSE students now provides Improvement in Food Resources class 9 Notes latest chapter wise notes for quick preparation of CBSE exams and school based annual examinations. Class 9 Science notes on Chapter 15 Improvement in Food Resources are also available for download in CBSE Guide website.

CBSE Guide Improvement in Food Resources class 9 Notes

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9 Science notes Chapter 15 Improvement in Food Resources

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CBSE Class 9 Science
Revision Notes
Improvement in food resources

1. Food Resources: Cereals (Wheat, rice, maize, millets and sorghum) provide us carbohydrates; Pulses (Grams, pea and lentil) provide us proteins; Oil seeds (Soya bean, ground nut, sesame, and castor) provide us fats; Vegetables, spices and fruits provide us a range of minerals, nucleic acids and vitamins.

In addition to these food crops, fodder crops like berseem, oats or sudan grass are raised as food for the livestock are called as fodder crops.

2. The Kharif crops: The crops grown in rainy season are called as Kharif crops (Paddy, Soya bean, pigeon pea and maize). They are grown from June to October.

3. The Rabi crops: The crops grown in winter season are called Rabi crops (Wheat, gram, peas, and mustard). They are grown November to April.

Compare Kharif crops and Rabi crops:

1.Kharif cropsJune to October ( Rainy Season)Paddy, Soya bean, and maize
2.Rabi cropsNov. to April ( winter season)Wheat, gram, peas, and mustard

4. The Green Revolution: Food supplies are generally as proteins, carbohydrates, fats, minerals, nucleic acids and vitamins in all living organisms. Indian population is growing enormously. Green Revolution is the need of the hour to increase food-grain production.

5. Sustainable Practices: For sustained livelihood, one should undertake mixed farming, inter cropping, and integrated farming practices, for example, combining agriculture with livestock/ poultry/ fisheries/bee-keeping. The major group of activities for improving crop yield can be classified as: Crop varietal improvement, Crop production improvement, Crop protection improvement

6. The Crop varietal improvement:

a) Hybridization: It refers to crossing between genetically dissimilar plants;It is all to get higher yield, improved quality, biotic and abiotic resistance, change in maturity duration, wider adaptability and desirable agronomic characteristics.

1Inter varietal Hybridizationbetween different varieties
2Inter specific Hybridizationbetween different species
3Inter generic Hybridizationbetween different genera
4Genetically Modified Crops (GMC).Another way of improving the crop is by introducing a gene that would provide desired characteristic.

7. The Crop production improvement: They include” no cost production”,” low cost production” or “high cost production” practices.

  1. Nutrients (Sixteen elements are required for growth are called as essential elements Carbon, oxygen, hydrogen+ Macro nutrients & Micronutrients. They increase the yield)
SNo.Macro nutrientMicro nutrient
1.Six elements are required in larger quantityOther seven elements are required in small quantity
2.Ex.Nitrogen, phosphorus, calcium, Potassium, magnesium, sulphurEx. Iron, manganese, boron, zink, copper, molybdinum, chlorine
  1. Manure & Fertilizers:
1Manure is prepared by the decomposition of animal excreta and plant waste is called as Humus. It decides the texture of the soil.
Compost: Farm waste, cow dung etc.
Vermi compost: Compost prepared by using earthworms.
Fertilizers are commercially produced plant nutrients. Excess fertilizers destroy the soil fertility.
Organic farming: No use of chemicals fertilizers, herbicides, pesticides etc.
Culturing blue green algae, neem leaves, healthy cropping systems.
2It is cheap and prepared in rural homes and fieldsIt is costly and is prepared in factories
3It is voluminous and bulkyIt is compact and concentrated
4It is inconvenient to store, transport, handle.It is easy to store, transport, handle.
5It is not nutrient specific.It is nutrient specific and can provide specifically nitrogen, phosphorus etc.
6Add great humus to the soilDoes not add humus to the soil.

3. Irrigation: India has variety of water resources: Wells, canals, river lift system, tanks, rainwater harvesting, water shedding management to increase in ground water levels and to check the water flowing away to the sea. Planning to reduce soil erosion.

4. Cropping patterns:

S N.Mixed croppingInter-croppingCrop rotation
1Two or more crops Grown simultaneously on the same piece of landTwo or more crops grown simultaneously on the same piece >of land in a definite patternGrowing different crops on a piece of land in a pre-planned succession
2Ex. Wheat+ Gram Wheat+ Mustard; Wheat+ gram; Groundnut+sunflower.Soyabean + maize/bajra + CowpeaTwo or three crops can be grown in a year depending upon the duration.
3A type of insurance against failure of one of the crops.A few rows of one crop alternate with a few rows of a second crop. Crops are selected such that their nutrient requirements are different. This ensures the maximum utilization of the nutrients supplied and prevents pests and diseases spreading in the crop fieldThe availability of moisture and Irrigation facilities decides the choice of the crop to be cultivated.

8. Crop protection improvement/ management: Field crops are infested by large number of weeds, insects pests, diseases & storage of grains

SN.WeedsInsect pestsDiseasesStorage of grains
1Weeds are unwanted plants in the crop fieldInsect pest is nuisance in the crop fieldDisease is caused by pathogens in the fieldDifferent factors are responsible.
2Weeds take up nutrients and reduce the growthInsect pest affect the health of crop and reduce the yield.Diseases alter the physiology of crops and reduce the yieldDifferent factors reduce the quality of stored grains
3Ex. Xanthium, PartheniumEx. Caterpillars, dragonflyEx. Bacteria, VirusBotic factors: insects, rodents, fungi Abiotic factors: moisture & temperature
4Removal of weeds at an early stage is recommended.

Spray weedicides

Spread of chemicals such as pesticidesSpread of chemicals to kill pathogensSystematic management of ware house.

9. Animal Husbandry: It is a scientific management of animal livestock, includes feeding, breeding and diseases control. Animal-based farming includes cattle farming, Poultry farming, fish farming, and bee Keeping.

Improvement in Food Resources class 9 Notes

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CBSE Class-9 Revision Notes and Key Points

Improvement in Food Resources class 9 Notes. CBSE quick revision note for Class-9 Science, Chemistry, Maths, Biology and other subject are very helpful to revise the whole syllabus during exam days. The revision notes covers all important formulas and concepts given in the chapter. Even if you wish to have an overview of a chapter, quick revision notes are here to do if for you. These notes will certainly save your time during stressful exam days.

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