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Diversity in the living world

NCERT Solutions for class XI Biology Chapter 1 Diversity in the living world  from NCERT text book prescribed for class 11 Biology. The chapter covered What different criteria would you choose to classify people that you meet often? What do we learn from identification of individuals and populations? Define a taxon. Give some examples of taxa at different hierarchical levels. Try to collect all the currently accepted meanings for the word ‘species'. Discuss with your teacher the meaning of species in case of higher plants and animals on one hand and bacteria on the other hand. 

Biological classification

NCERT Solutions for class XI Biology Chapter 2 Biological classification from NCERT text book prescribed for class 11 Biology. The chapter covered Discuss how classification systems have undergone several changes over a period of time? Plants are autotrophic. Can you think of some plants that are partially heterotrophic? Give a brief account of viruses with respect to their structure and nature of genetic material. Also name four common viral diseases. Organise a discussion in your class on the topic- Are viruses living or non-living?

Plant kingdom

NCERT Solutions for class XI Biology Chapter 3 Plant kingdom from NCERT text book prescribed for class 11 Biology. The chapter covered When and where does reduction division take place in the life cycle of a liverwort, a moss, a fern, a gymnosperm and an angiosperm? Name three groups of plants that bear archegonia. Briefly describe the life cycle of any one of them. Both gymnosperms and angiosperms bear seeds, then why are they classified separately?

Animal Kingdom

NCERT Solutions for class XI Biology Chapter 4 Animal Kingdom from NCERT text book prescribed for class 11 Biology. The chapter covered What are the difficulties that you would face in classification of animals, if common fundamental features are not taken into account? If you are given a specimen, what are the steps that you would follow to classify it? How useful is the study of the nature of body cavity and coelom in the classification of animals? What are the reasons that you can think of for the arthropods to constitute the largest group of the animal kingdom?

Structural organization in plants and animals

NCERT Solutions for class XI Biology Chapter 5 Structural organization in plants and animals from NCERT text book prescribed for class 11 Biology. The chapter covered How is pinnately compound leaf different from palmately compound leaf? Take one flower each of families Fabaceae and Solanaceae and write its semi-technical description. Also draw their floral diagrams after studying them. What is a flower? Describe the parts of a typical angiosperm flower? How do the various leaf modifications help plants? Define the term inflorescence. Explain the basis for the different types of inflorescence in flowering plants.

Anatomy of flowering plants

NCERT Solutions for class XI Biology Chapter 6 Anatomy of flowering plants from NCERT text book prescribed for class 11 Biology. The chapter covered The transverse section of a plant material shows the following anatomical features, (a) the vascular bundles are conjoint, scattered and surrounded by sclerenchymatous bundle sheaths (b) phloem parenchyma is absent. What will you identify it as? Cut a transverse section of young stem of a plant from your school garden and observe it under the microscope. How would you ascertain whether it is a monocot stem or dicot stem? Give reasons.

Structural organization in animals

NCERT Solutions for class XI Biology Chapter 7 Structural organization in animals from NCERT text book prescribed for class 11 Biology. The chapter covered What is the function of nephridia? How many types of nephridia are found in earthworm based on their location? Describe various types of epithelial tissues with the help of labelled diagrams. Mention briefly about the circulatory system of earthworm. Simple epithelium and compound epithelium. Cardiac muscle and striated muscle, Dense regular and dense irregular connective tissues , Adipose and blood tissue

Cell structure and functions

NCERT Solutions for class XI Biology Chapter 8 Cell structure and functions from NCERT text book prescribed for class 11 Biology. The chapter covered How do neutral solutes move across the plasma membrane? Can the polar molecules also move across it in the same way? If not, then how are these transported across the membrane? Name two cell-organelles that are double membrane bound. What are the characteristics of these two organelles? State their functions and draw labelled diagrams of both. Both lysosomes and vacuoles are endomembrane structures, yet they differ in terms of their functions. Comment. 

Biomolecules

NCERT Solutions for class XI Biology Chapter 9 Biomolecules from NCERT text book prescribed for class 11 Biology. The chapter covered Illustrate a glycosidic, peptide and a phospho-diester bond. Find and write down structures of 10 interesting small molecular weight biomolecules. Find if there is any industry which manufactures the compounds by isolation. Find out who are the buyers. Find out and make a list of proteins used as therapeutic agents. Find other applications of proteins. Can you describe what happens when milk is converted into curd or yoghurt from your understanding of proteins.

Cell cycle and cell division

NCERT Solutions for class XI Biology Chapter 10 Cell cycle and cell division from NCERT text book prescribed for class 11 Biology. The chapter covered Find examples where the four daughter cells from meiosis are equal in size and where they are found unequal in size.  Discuss with your teacher about (i) haploid insects and lower plants where cell-division occurs, and (ii) some haploid cells in higher plants where cell-division does not occur. Analyse the events during every stage of cell cycle and notice how the following two parameters.

Transport in Plants

NCERT Solutions for class XI Biology Chapter 11 Transport in Plants from NCERT text book prescribed for class 11 Biology. The chapter covered Describe the role played by protein pumps during active transport in plants. Briefly describe water potential. What are the factors affecting it? What happens when a pressure greater than the atmospheric pressure is applied to pure water or a solution? With the help of well-labelled diagrams, describe the process of plasmolysis in plants, giving appropriate examples. Explain what will happen to a plant cell if it is kept in a solution having higher water potential.

Mineral nutrition

NCERT Solutions for class XI Biology Chapter 12 Mineral nutrition from NCERT text book prescribed for class 11 Biology. The chapter covered ‘All elements that are present in a plant need not be essential to its survival’. Comment. Why is purification of water and nutrient salts so important in studies involving mineral nutrition using hydroponics? Explain with examples: macronutrients, micronutrients, beneficial nutrients, toxic elements and essential elements. Name at least five different deficiency symptoms in plants. Describe them and correlate them with the concerned mineral deficiency.

Photosynthesis in higher plants

NCERT Solutions for class XI Biology Chapter 13 Photosynthesis in higher plants from NCERT text book prescribed for class 11 Biology. The chapter covered Look at leaves of the same plant on the shady side and compare it with the leaves on the sunny side. Or, compare the potted plants kept in the sunlight with those in the shade. Which of them has leaves that are darker green? Why? Suppose there were plants that had a high concentration of Chlorophyll-b, but lacked chlorophyll-a, would it carry out photosynthesis? Then why do plants have chlorophyll-b and other accessory pigments?

Respiration plants

NCERT Solutions for class XI Biology Chapter 14 Respiration plants from NCERT text book prescribed for class 11 Biology. The chapter covered What are respiratory substrates? Name the most common respiratory substrate. What are the main steps in aerobic respiration? Where does it take place? What are the assumptions made during the calculation of net gain of ATP? Discuss “The respiratory pathway is an amphibolic pathway.” What is the significance of step-wise release of energy in respiration?

Plant growth and development

NCERT Solutions for class XI Biology Chapter 15 Plant growth and development from NCERT text book prescribed for class 11 Biology. The chapter covered Define growth, differentiation, development, dedifferentiation, redifferentiation, determinate growth, meristem and growth rate. Why is not any one parameter good enough to demonstrate growth throughout the life of a flowering plant? What do you understand by photoperiodism and vernalisation? Describe their significance. ‘Both growth and differentiation in higher plants are open’. Comment.

Human physiology

NCERT Solutions for class XI Biology Chapter 16 Human physiology from NCERT text book prescribed for class 11 Biology. The chapter covered Why are villi present in the intestine and not in the stomach? How does pepsinogen change into its active form? What are the basic layers of the wall of alimentary canal? How does bile help in the digestion of fats? State the role of pancreatic juice in digestion of proteins. Bile juice contains no digestive enzymes, yet it is important for digestion. Why? Describe the digestive role of chymotrypsin. What two other digestive enzymes of the same category are secreted by its source gland?

Breathing and exchange gases

NCERT Solutions for class XI Biology Chapter 17 Breathing and exchange gases from NCERT text book prescribed for class 11 Biology. The chapter covered Diffusion of gases occurs in the alveolar region only and not in the other parts of respiratory system. Why? What happens to the respiratory process in a man going up a hill? Define oxygen dissociation curve. Can you suggest any reason for its sigmoidal pattern? Have you heard about hypoxia? Try to gather information about it, and discuss with your friends. What is Tidal volume? Find out the Tidal volume (approximate value) for a healthy human in an hour.

Body fluids and cirulation

NCERT Solutions for class XI Biology Chapter 18 Body fluids and cirulation from NCERT text book prescribed for class 11 Biology. The chapter covered Name the components of the formed elements in the blood and mention one major function of each of them. What is the difference between lymph and blood? What is meant by double circulation? What is its significance? Write the differences between: (a) Blood and Lymph, (b) Open and Closed system of circulation, (c) Systole and Diastole, (d) P-wave and T-wave

Human Excretory System

NCERT Solutions for class XI Biology Chapter 19 Human Excretory System from NCERT text book prescribed for class 11 Biology. The chapter covered Indicate whether the following statements are true or false. (a) Micturition is carried out by a reflex. (b) ADH helps in water elimination, making the urine hypotonic. (c) Protein-free fluid is filtered from blood plasma into the Bowman’s capsule. (d) Henle’s loop plays an important role in concentrating the urine. (e) Glucose is actively reabsorbed in the proximal convoluted tubule. Terrestrial animals are generally either ureotelic or uricotelic, not ammonotelic, why ?

Locomotion and movement

NCERT Solutions for class XI Biology Chapter 20 Locomotion and movement from NCERT text book prescribed for class 11 Biology. The chapter covered What are the different types of movements exhibited by the cells of human body? How do you distinguish between a skeletal muscle and a cardiac muscle? Write true or false. If false change the statement so that it is true: Actin is present in thin filament, H-zone of striated muscle fibre represents both thick and thin filaments.  Human skeleton has 206 bones.  There are 11 pairs of ribs in man. Sternum is present on the ventral side of the body.

Neural System

NCERT Solutions for class XI Biology Chapter 21 Neural System from NCERT text book prescribed for class 11 Biology. The chapter covered Central neural system (CNS) and Peripheral neural system (PNS), Resting potential and action potential and Choroid and retina. How do you perceive the colour of an object? Which part of our body helps us in maintaining the body balance? How does the eye regulate the amount of light that falls on the retina. Which part of the human brain is the most developed? Which part of our central neural system acts as a master clock?

 

Chemical coordination and integration

NCERT Solutions for class XI Biology Chapter 22 Chemical coordination and integration from NCERT text book prescribed for class 11 Biology. The chapter covered Diagrammatically indicate the location of the various endocrine glands in our body. Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) stimulates growth and development of the ovarian follicles in females. This enzyme converts ATP into cyclicAMP. The cyclicAMP is called the second messenger and carries out various biochemical responses in the cell by activating the existing enzyme system in the cell.



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