Introduction to Programming class 11 Notes Informatics Practices

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Introduction to Programming class 11 Notes Informatics Practices

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CBSE Class 11 Informatics Practices
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Introduction to Programming class 11 Notes Informatics Practices

Getting started with IDE
RAD: Rapid Application Development is software programming technique that allows quick development of software application.
Integrated Development Environment (IDE): It is a software tool to help programmer to edit, compile, interpret and debug the program in the same environment. i.e Eclipse,NetBeans, MicroSoft Visual Studio etc.
Byte code: A byte code is machine instruction that the Java compiler generates and Java interpreter executes. When the compiler compiles a .java file, it produces a series of byte codes and stores them in a .class file. The Java interpreter (JVM) can execute the byte codes stored in the .class file.
JVM: Java Virtual Machine (JVM) is a program which behaves as interpreter and translates the byte code into machine language as they go called just in time compilation.
Source Code: The core program or text which is written in a language like C, C++ or Java is called source code.
Object Code: The program which only is understood by the computer in the form of machine instructions or binary instructions called object code. In Java JVM is used to generate object code in the form of byte code.
GUI: A graphical user interface (GUI) presents a pictorial interface to a program. GUI allows the user to spend less time trying to remember which keystroke sequences do what and spend more time using the program in a productive manner.

Programming Fundamentals

The smallest individual unit in a program is known as Token. Java has the following types of tokens: keyword, Identifier, literal, punctuators and operators.

Keywords are words that have a specific predefined meaning in Java. They cannot be used as variable names. They are also known as reserve words. Eg. void, private, if, while etc.

Items having fixed data values are referred to as Literals. They are also known as Constants. Various types of literals available in Java are:
■ Integer literals
■ Floating literals
■ Boolean literals
■ Character literals
■ String literals
■ Null literals

Variable: Variable is a named storage location in computer memory whose contents can change during a program run.
The characteristics of a variable are:
(i) It has a name.
(ii) It is capable of storing values.
(iii) It provides temporary storage.
(iv) It is capable of changing its value during program execution.

The following nine ASCII charaters are the separators:
( ) { } [ ] ; , .

Operators: Operators are special symbols that perform specific operations on one, two, or three operands, and then return a result.

Postfixexpr++ expr
Unary++exprexpr+exprexpr~ !
Multiplicative* / %
Additive+ –
Relational<><= >= instanceof
Equality== !=
Bitwise AND&
Bitwiseexclusive OR A
Bitwise InclusiveOR |
LogicalAND &&
LogicalOR ||
Ternary? :
Assignment= += =*= /= %= &= A= |= <<= >>= >>>=

Data type states the way the values of that type are stored, and the range for that type.

Primitive Data Types:
The Java programming language is statically typed, which means that all variables must first be declared before they can be used.
A primitive type is predefined by the language and is named by a reserved keyword. The eight primitive data types supported by the Java programming language are:
byte: The byte data type is an 8 bit signed two’s complement integer. It has a minimum value of 128 and a maximum value of 127 (inclusive).
short: The short data type is a 16 bit signed two’s complement integer. It has a minimum value of 32,768 and a maximum value of 32,767 (inclusive).
int: The int data type is a 32 bit signed two’s complement integer. It has a minimum value of 2,147,483,648 and a maximum value of 2,147,483,647 (inclusive).
long: The long data type is a 64 bit signed two’s complement integer. It has a minimum value of 9,223,372,036,854,775,808 and a maximum value of 9,223,372,036,854,775,807(inclusive).
float: The float data type is a single precision 32 bit IEEE 754 floating point.
double: The double data type is a double precision 64 bit IEEE 754 floating point.
boolean: The boolean data type has only two possible values: true and false. Use this data type for simple flags that track true/false conditions.
char: The char data type is a single 16 bit Unicode character. It has a minimum value of ‘\u0000’ (or 0) and a maximum value of ‘\uffff ‘ (or 65,535 inclusive).

Reference Data Types: These are constructed by using primitive data types, as per user need.
Reference data types, as per user need. Reference data types store the memory address of an object. Class, store the memory address of an object.
Class, Interface and Array are the example of Interface Reference Data types.

Parse Methods: parse() methods helps to parse string into different numeric types. These are:

parseByte()Byte.parseByte(string)To convert a string value to byte type
parseShort()Short.parseShort(string)To convert a string value to type short
parseInt()Integer.parseInt(string)To convert a string value to Integer type
parseLong()Long.parseLong()To convert a string value to Long type
parseFloat()Float.parseFloat()To convert a string value to Float type
pareseDouble()Double.parseDouble()To convert a string value to Double type

Type Conversion:
The process of converting one predefined type into another is called Type Conversion.
These are of two types:
a) Implicit type conversion.
b) Explicit type conversion.

Implicit Type Conversion: In this conversion java compiler converts all operands up to the type of largest datatype.

Explicit Type Conversion: An explicit type conversion is user defined that forces an expression to be of specific type.

Flow Of Control
• Control Flow Statements:
The statements inside your source files are generally executed from top to bottom, in the order that they appear. Control flow statements, however, breakup the flow of execution by employing decision making, looping, and branching, enabling your program to conditionally execute particular blocks of code.

1. Selection: A selection statement selects among a set of statements depending on the value of a controlling expression.
(a) if statements: The if statement allows selection (decision making) depending upon the outcome of a condition. If the condition evaluates to true then the statement immediately following if will be executed and otherwise if the condition evaluates to false then the statements following the else clause will be executed.
(i) Simple if: The syntax of if statement is as shown below:
if (conditional expression)
Statement Block;

(ii) if-else: The syntax of if-else statement is as shown below:
if (conditional expression)
Statement Block;
Statement Block;

(iii) Nested if else: These control structures are used to test for multiple conditions as against the simple if statement which can be used to test a single condition. The syntax of nested if else is as follows:

if(conditional expression 1) 
// Executes when the expression 1 is true 
       if(Conditional expression 2)
           // Executes when the expression 2 is true 
             Statement Block;


(b) switch: This selection statement allows us to test the value of an expression with a series of character or integer values. On finding a matching value the control jumps to the statement pertaining to that value and the statement is executed, till the break statement is encountered or the end of switch is reached.
The syntax of the switch statement is as follows: switch (Variable/Expression)
case Constant1: statements1; break;
case Constant2: statements2; break;
default: statements3;

2. Looping: These statements are used to perform a set of instructions repeatedly while the condition is true.
(i) The syntax of the for loop is:
for (initialization; test expression; increment/decrement expression)

(ii) While loop: The while loop is an entry-controlled loop. It means that the loop condition is tested before executing the loop body. If the loop condition is initially false, for the first iteration, then loop may not execute even once.
The syntax of the while loop is as follows:
while(test expression)
loop body

increment/decrement expression

(iii) do while: Do..While loop is an exit-controlled loop. In the do..while loop, the test occurs at the end of the loop. This ensures that the do..while loop executes the statements included in the loop body at least once.
The syntax of the loop is as follows:
loop body

increment/decrement expression
while (test expression);

3. Jump:
(i) break:
The break is used to break from an enclosing do, while, for or switch statement.

(ii) continue: The continue statement stops the execution of the current iteration and causes control to begin with next iteration.

(iii) return: Return is used to return value from the method
Return <value>;

Java IDE Programming – I, II & III

• Commonly available Swing Controls in Java
A Frame is a container control, in which all the controls can be lace.
jLabel: JLabel allows placing un-editable text on the Frame/Panel
jTextField: JTextField allows placing editable text on the Frame/Panel. User can enter text in a textField during runtime.
jButton: JButton is used to initiate an action when it is clicked.
jList: JList is a group of values or items from which one or more selections can be made.
jComboBox: JComboBox is similar to JList but also allow to enter editable text during run time. It is a combination of jTextFiled and jList. It allows only single selection of items from group of values or items.
jRadioButton: Allow us to choose a single item from a group of jRadioButton options.
jCheckBox: Allow us to choose one or more items from a group of jCheckBox options.
jPasswordField: Allow us to enter a text during the run time but shows an encrypted text instead of the original text.
jTextArea: JTextArea is a multi-line text component to enter or edit text.
Focus: The control under execution is said to have the focus. The control having the focus obtains input form the user.
getText(): getText() method is used to obtain the text from a jTextField during the run time.
setText(): setText() method is used to set or change the text of a jTextFeild during run time.

Swing Controls Methods and Properties: These are the Swing Controls available with Netbean IDE and their concern methods and properties are given below.

Swing ControlsMethodsProperties
jButton• getText()
• setText()
• Enabled
• Font
• Foreground
• Text
• Label
jLabel• getText()Background
jTextField• getText()
• isEditable()
• isEnabled()
• setText()
• Background
• Editable
• Enabled
• Font
• Text
jRadioButton• getText()
• setText()
• isSelected()
• setSelected()
• Background
• Button Group
• Enabled
• Foreground
• Label
• Selected
jCheckBox• getText()
• setText()
• isSelected()
• setSelected()
• Button Group
• Font
• Foreground
• Label
• Selected
• Text
jButtonGroup• Add
jComboBox• getSelectedItem()
• getSelectedIndex()
• setModel()
• Background
• ButtonGroup
• Editable
• Enabled
• Foreground
• Model
• SelectedIndex
• SelectedItem
• Text
jList• getSelectedValue()
• getSelectedValues()
• getSelectedIndex()
• getSelectedIndices()
• setModel()
• Background
• Enabled
• Font
• Foreground
• Model
• SelectedIndex
• SelectedItem
• SelectedMode
• Text
jTable• addRow()
• addModel()
• model
JoptionPane• showMessageDialog()• getRowCount()
• RemoveRow()
• addRow()

Stylistic Guidelines
> Use meaningful names for identifiers.
> Ensure clarity of expressions.
> Use comment and indentation.
> Insert blank lines and blank spaces.

Characteristic for a Good Program
> Effective and efficient.
> User friendly.
> Self documenting code.
> Reliable.
> Portable.

Stages of Program Development Process
A program development process is a step by step process where each stage contributes to building of an effective and efficient program.

Stages are as follows
> Crack the problem.
> Code the algorithm.
> Compile the program.
> Execute the program.

Types of Errors
> Compile Time Error: Occurs during compile time. When a program compiles it sources code is checked for rules of programming language.

Its types are:-
1. Syntax error: it occurs when a grammatical rule of Java is violated
2. Semantic error: it occurs when statement are not meaningful.

> Run Time Error: Occurs during the execution of the program.
> Logical Error: Occurs due to wrong logic of a program.

Steps to creating a working program are:-

1. Understand the problem well

2. Analyze the problem to
a) Identify minimum number of inputs required for output
b) Identify processing components.

3. Design the program by
a) Deciding step by step solution.
b) Breaking down solution into simple steps.

4. Code the program by
a) Identifying arithmetic and logical operation required for solution.
b) Using appropriate control structure such as conditional or looping control structure.

5. Test and Debug your program by
a) Finding error in it.
b) Rectifying the error.

6. Complete your documentation.

7. Maintain your program.

Introduction to Programming class 11 Notes

  • CBSE Revision notes (PDF Download) Free
  • CBSE Revision notes for Class 11 Informatics Practices PDF
  • CBSE Revision notes Class 11 Informatics Practices – CBSE
  • CBSE Revisions notes and Key Points Class 11 Informatics Practices
  • Summary of the NCERT books all chapters in Informatics Practices class 11
  • Short notes for CBSE class 11th Informatics Practices
  • Key notes and chapter summary of Informatics Practices class 11
  • Quick revision notes for CBSE exams

CBSE Class-11 Revision Notes and Key Points

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