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Download CBSE class 12 Geography study material in PDF format. MyCBSEguide provides solved papers, board question papers, revision notes and NCERT solutions for CBSE class 12 Geography. The topics included are The Cold War Era, The End of Bipolarity, US Hegemony in World Politics, Alternative Centres of Power, Contemporary South Asia, International Organisations, Security in the Contemporary World, Environment and Natural Resources, Globalisation, Challenges of Nation-Building, Era of One-party Dominance, Politics of Planned Development, India's External relations, Challenges to the Congress System, Crisis of the Democratic Order, Rise of Popular Movements, Regional aspirations, Recent Developments in Indian Politics.
Part A: Contemporary World Politics
1 Cold War Era
Emergence of two power blocs after the second world war. Arenas of the cold war. Challenges to Bipolarity: Non Aligned Movement, quest for new international economic order.
India and the cold war.
2 The End of Bipolarity
New entities in world politics: Russia, Balkan states and Central Asian states, Introduction of democratic politics and capitalism in post-communist regimes. India's relations with Russia and other post-communist countries.
3 US Hegemony in World Politics
Growth of unilateralism: Afghanistan, first Gulf War, response to 9/11 and attack on Iraq. Dominance and challenge to the US in economy and ideology. India's renegotiation of its relationship with the USA.
4 Alternative Centres of Power
Rise of China as an economic power in post-Maoera, creation and expansion of European Union, ASEAN. India's changing relations with China.
5 Contemporary South Asia in the Post-Cold War Era
Democratisation in Pakistan and Nepal. Ethnic conflict in Sri Lanka, Impact of economic globalization on the region. Conflicts and efforts for peace in South Asia. India's relations with its neighbours.
6 International Organizations
Restructuring and the future of the UN. India's position in the restructured UN. Rise of new international actors: new international economic organisations, NGOs. How democratic and accountable are the new institutions of global governance?
7 Security in Contemporary World
Traditional concerns of security and politics of disarmament. Non-traditional or human security: global poverty, health and education. Issues of human rights and migration.
8 Environment and Natural Resources
Environment movement and evolution of global environmental norms. Conflicts over traditional and common property resources. Rights of indigenous people. India's stand in global environmental debates.
Economic, cultural and political manifestations. Debates on the nature of consequences of globalisation. Anti-globalisation movements. India as an arena of globalization and struggle against it.
Part B: Politics in India since Independence
10 Challenges of Nation- Building
Nehru's approach to nation-building; Legacy of partition: challenge of 'refugee' resettlement, the Kashmir problem. Organisation and reorganization of states; Political conflicts over language.
11 Era of One-Party Dominance
First three general elections, nature of Congress dominance at the national level, uneven dominance at the state level, coalitional nature of Congress. Major opposition parties.
12 Politics of Planned Development
Five year plans, expansion of state sector and the rise of new economic interests. Famine and suspension of five year plans. Green revolution and its political fallouts.
13 India's External Relations
Nehru's foreign policy. Sino-Indian war of 1962, Indo-Pak war of 1965 and 1971. India's nuclear programme. Shifting alliance in world politics.
14 Challenges to the Congress System
Political succession after Nehru. Non-Congressism and electoral upset of 1967, Congress split and reconstitution, Congress' victory in 1971 elections, politics of 'garibi hatao'.
15 Crisis of the Democratic Order
Search for 'committed' bureaucracy and judiciary. Navnirman movement in Gujarat and the Bihar movement. Emergency: context, constitutional and extra-constitutional dimensions, resistance to emergency. 1977 elections and the formation of Janata Party.
Rise of civil liberties organisations.
16 Popular Movements in India
Farmers' movements, Women's movement, Environment and Development-affected people's movements. Implementation of Mandal Commission report and its aftermath.
17 Regional Aspirations
Rise of regional parties. Punjab crisis and the anti Sikh riots of 1984. The Kashmir situation. Challenges and responses in the North East.
18 Recent Developments in Indian politics
Participatory upsurge in1990s. Rise of the JD and the BJP. Increasing role of regional parties and coalition politics. Coalition governments:
NDA (1998 - 2004)
UPA (2004 - 2014)
NDA (2014 onwards)
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