CBSE - Class 12 - Geography - NCERT Textbook (PDF)

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NCERT Textbook (PDF) for Class 12 Geography

Download NCERT Textbook (PDF) for CBSE Class 12 Geography Term 1 - Ch01 Human Geography Nature and Scope Class 12 Geography Ch01 Human Geography Nature and Scope. The basic motto of geography as a discipline is to understand earth as home to human beings and to study all those elements which have sustained them.

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Download NCERT Textbook (PDF) for CBSE Class 12 Geography Term 1 - Ch02 The World Population Class 12 Geography Ch02 The World Population - distribution,density and growth, Age-sex ratio, rural-urban composition. The people of a country are its real wealth.

Download NCERT Textbook (PDF) for CBSE Class 12 Geography Term 1 - Ch03 Population Composition Class 12 Geography Ch03 Migration - spatial patterns and structure; determinants of population change. Age structure represents the number of people of different age groups. It can help us to know the number of working population and dependent populations.

Download NCERT Textbook (PDF) for CBSE Class 12 Geography Term 1 - Ch04 Human Development Class 12 Geography Ch04 Human Development - concept, selected indicators, international comparisons. Development can be measured by the quality of life that people in a country enjoy, the opportunities they have and freedoms they enjoy.

Download NCERT Textbook (PDF) for CBSE Class 12 Geography Term 1 - Ch05 Primary Activities Class 12 Geography Ch05 Primary Activities - concept and changing trends - gathering, pastoral, mining, subsistence agriculture, modern agriculture; people engaged in agricultural and allied activities - some examples from selected countries.

Download NCERT Textbook (PDF) for CBSE Class 12 Geography Term 2 - Ch06 Secondary Activities Class 12 Geography Ch06 Secondary Activities - concept - manufacturing: types - household, small scale, large scale; agro based and mineral based industries; people engaged in secondary activities - some examples from selected countries.

Download NCERT Textbook (PDF) for CBSE Class 12 Geography Term 2 - Ch07 Tertiary and Quaternary Activities Class 12 Geography Ch07 Tertiary and Quaternary Activities - trade, transport and tourism - services, people engaged in tertiary activities - some examples from selected countries. Quatenary activities-concept - people engaged in quatenary activities - case study from selected countries.

Download NCERT Textbook (PDF) for CBSE Class 12 Geography Term 2 - Ch08 Transport and Communication Class 12 Geography Ch08 Transport and Communication - Land transport, Water transport, Air transport, Oil and gas pipelines, Satellite communication and cyber space.

Download NCERT Textbook (PDF) for CBSE Class 12 Geography Ch09 International Trade Class 12 Geography Ch09 International Trade - Bases and changing patterns; ports as gateways of international trade, role of WTO in International trade.

Download NCERT Textbook (PDF) for CBSE Class 12 Geography Ch10 Human Settlements Class 12 Geography Ch10 Human Settlements - rural and urban, morphology of cities (case study), distribution of mega cities, problems of human settlements in developing countries.

Download NCERT Textbook (PDF) for CBSE Class 12 Geography Term 1 - Ch11 India Population Class 12 Geography Ch11 India Population - distribution, density and growth, composition of population - linguistic, religious, sex, rural-urban and occupational-regional variations in growth of population.

Download NCERT Textbook (PDF) for CBSE Class 12 Geography Term 1 - Ch12 India Migration Class 12 Geography Ch12 India Migration - international, national-causes and consequences. When a person or a group of persons shift from one place to other and settle there, it is called migration. This migration can be temporary or permanent.

Download NCERT Textbook (PDF) for CBSE Class 12 Geography Ch13 India Human Development Class 12 Geography Ch13 India Human Development - selected indicators and regional patterns. Human development is a process of enlarging the range of people's choices providing full freedom and increases the opportunities for education, health, and income.

Download NCERT Textbook (PDF) for CBSE Class 12 Geography Term 1 - Ch14 India Human Settlements Class 12 Geography Ch14 India Human Settlements - Rural settlements and Urban settlements - types, distribution and functional classification. Human settlement means cluster of dwellings of any type or size where human beings live. House is the smallest unit of settlement.

Download NCERT Textbook (PDF) for CBSE Class 12 Geography Ch15 India Land Resource and Agriculture Class 12 Geography Ch15 India Land Resource and Agriculture - general land use; agricultural land use, Geographical conditions and distribution of major crops (Wheat, Rice, Tea, Coffee, Cotton, Jute, Sugarcane and Rubber), agricultural development and problems.

Download NCERT Textbook (PDF) for CBSE Class 12 Geography Term 1 - Ch16 India Water Resources Class 12 Geography Ch16 India Water Resources - availability and utilization-irrigation, domestic, industrial and other uses; scarcity of water and conservation methods-rain water harvesting and watershed management.

Download NCERT Textbook (PDF) for CBSE Class 12 Geography Term 2 - Ch17 India Mineral and Energy Resources Class 12 Geography Ch17 India Mineral and Energy Resources - distribution of metallic (Iron ore, Copper, Bauxite, Manganese), non-metallic (Mica, Salt) minerals; conventional (Coal, Petroleum, Natural gas and Hydroelectricity) and non-conventional energy sources (solar, wind, biogas) and conservation.

Download NCERT Textbook (PDF) for CBSE Class 12 Geography Ch18 India Manufacturing Industries Class 12 Geography Ch18 India Manufacturing Industries - types, factors of industrial location, distribution and changing pattern of selected industries-iron and steel, cotton textiles, sugar, petrochemicals, and knowledge based industries, impact of liberalization, privatisation and globalisation on industrial location, industrial clusters.

Download NCERT Textbook (PDF) for CBSE Class 12 Geography Term 2 - Ch19 India Planning and Sustainable Development Class 12 Geography Ch19 India Planning and Sustainable Development - target group area planning (case study), idea of sustainable development (case study).

Download NCERT Textbook (PDF) for CBSE Class 12 Geography Term 2 - Ch20 India Transport and Communication Class 12 Geography Ch20 India Transport and Communication - roads, railways, waterways and airways: oil and gas pipelines, Geographical information and communication networks.

Download NCERT Textbook (PDF) for CBSE Class 12 Geography Ch21 India International Trade Class 12 Geography Ch21 India International Trade - changing pattern of India's foreign trade, sea ports and their hinterland and airports. International trade is mutually beneficial as no country is self- sufficient.

Download NCERT Textbook (PDF) for CBSE Class 12 Geography Term 2 - Ch22 India Geographical Perspective Class 12 Geography Ch22 India Gepgraphical Perspective - Environmental pollution, urban-waste disposal, Urbanisation, rural-urban migration, problems of slums, Land degradation.

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