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Account Deleted 2 months, 2 weeks ago

Available on this application!!!!
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Maaini Ramteke 2 weeks, 5 days ago

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Sia ? 2 years, 7 months ago

Biotechnology is a broad area of biology, involving the use of living systems and organisms to develop or make products. Depending on the tools and applications, it often overlaps with related scientific fields.

Neha Araj 2 years, 5 months ago

Thanks ?
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Anushka Singh 3 years, 1 month ago

A shuttle vector is defined as a plasmid capable of replicating in two different organisms. Vectors are the DNA molecules that carry a foreign DNA segment and replicate within the host cell such as bacteriophages, cosmids, phagemid, BAC (bacterial artificial chromosomes), YAC (yeast artificial chromosome) animal and plant vectors, and shuttle vectors. Plasmid DNA acts as a vector to transfer a piece of alien DNA attached to it. Recombinant DNA = vector + insert Mosquito is an insect vector that transfers the malarial parasite into the human body, similarly, the plasmid is used to transfer alien DNA into the host organism. Shuttle vectors are those vectors that can be used for more than one organism like used for both prokaryotes and eukaryotes.

Gaurav Seth 3 years, 2 months ago

A shuttle vector is defined as a plasmid capable of replicating in two different organisms.
Vectors are the DNA molecules that carry a foreign DNA segment and replicate within the host cell such as bacteriophages, cosmids, phagemid, BAC (bacterial artificial chromosomes), YAC (yeast artificial chromosome) animal and plant vectors, and shuttle vectors.
Plasmid DNA acts as a vector to transfer a piece of alien DNA attached to it.
Recombinant DNA = vector + insert
Mosquito is an insect vector that transfers the malarial parasite into the human body, similarly, the plasmid is used to transfer alien DNA into the host organism.
Shuttle vectors are those vectors that can be used for more than one organism like used for both prokaryotes and eukaryotes.

Yogita Ingle 3 years, 2 months ago

A shuttle vector is a vector  constructed so that it can propagate in two different host species.  Therefore, DNA inserted into a shuttle vector can be tested or manipulated in two different cell types. The main advantage of these vectors is they can be manipulated in E. coli, then used in a system which is more difficult or slower to use (e.g. yeast).
Shuttle vectors include plasmids that can propagate in eukaryotes and prokaryotes  or in different species of bacteria . There are also adenovirus shuttle vectors, which can propagate in E. coli and mammals.

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Revati Dinesh 3 years, 2 months ago

Yes

Anannya Priyadarshini 3 years, 2 months ago

Yes

Divyu Verma 3 years, 2 months ago

Yes

Natasha Katara 3 years, 2 months ago

Yes me !
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Yogita Ingle 3 years, 3 months ago

Strain Improvement: The science and technology of manipulating and improving microbial strains, in order to enhance their metabolic capacities for biotechnological applications, are referred to as Strain Improvement.

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Anushka Singh 3 years, 1 month ago

Ecoli is a prokaryotic organism so post transcriptional modifications like splicing , tailing , capping and post translational modification like glycosylation is absent in it. Thus it can't produce functional eukaryotic protein. This is the disadvantage of using Ecoli in the production of eukaryotic protein.

Mikha K 3 years, 2 months ago

Ecoli is a prokaryotic organism so post transcriptional modifications like splicing , tailing , capping and post translational modification like glycosylation is absent in it. Thus it can't produce functional eukaryotic protein. This is the disadvantage of using Ecoli in the production of eukaryotic protein.
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Kalyani Hire 3 years, 1 month ago

Restriction enzyme is also called as molecular ceaser. It is use to cut dna molecule

Gaurav Seth 3 years, 4 months ago

Restriction endonuclease is a sub-class of nuclease enzyme which can digest phospho-diester linkage from non-terminal end of DNA. This enzyme is found in bacteria, it is part of a defence system of bacteria. It restricts replication of viral DNA within in bacterial cell by digesting Viral DNA at specific points. Specific points of digestion are located on different strands of DNA so, restriction fragments are always double-stranded.

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Yogita Ingle 3 years, 4 months ago

Therapeutic proteins as drug substance may be provided in individual containers prior to the formulation/filling process. To ensure homogeneity, the therapeutic protein may need to be gently mixed in a vessel prior to filling. In this case, mixing may be necessary. Different types of methods utilized for mixing the material may be employed. Examples of mixing techniques include impellers on a shaft with open processing, suspended impellers, or magnetic stir bars at the bottom of the mixing vessel. It is likely that the mixing process will need to be scaled down for testing in the laboratory. Impeller mixing as well as mixing with magnetic stir bars may be simulated at a small scale. The investigator should determine the appropriate mixing speeds that will be utilized in manufacturing and determine if these processes adversely affect the protein. Studies have been reported for therapeutic proteins that have been mixed using magnetic stir bars, and it was demonstrated that this type of mixing may induce aggregates

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Meghna Thapar 3 years, 5 months ago

DdNTP are useful in the analysis of DNA's structure as it stops the polymerisation of a DNA strand during a DNA replication, producing different lengths of DNA strands replicated from a template strand. Chain termination sequencing involves the synthesis of new strands of DNA complementary to a single-stranded template (step I). The template DNA is supplied with a mixture of all four deoxynucleotides, four dideoxynucleotides--each labeled with a different color fluorescent tag, and DNA polymerase (step II).

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Yogita Ingle 3 years, 5 months ago

Therapeutic proteins as drug substance may be provided in individual containers prior to the formulation/filling process. To ensure homogeneity, the therapeutic protein may need to be gently mixed in a vessel prior to filling. In this case, mixing may be necessary. Different types of methods utilized for mixing the material may be employed. Examples of mixing techniques include impellers on a shaft with open processing, suspended impellers, or magnetic stir bars at the bottom of the mixing vessel. It is likely that the mixing process will need to be scaled down for testing in the laboratory. Impeller mixing as well as mixing with magnetic stir bars may be simulated at a small scale. The investigator should determine the appropriate mixing speeds that will be utilized in manufacturing and determine if these processes adversely affect the protein. Studies have been reported for therapeutic proteins that have been mixed using magnetic stir bars, and it was demonstrated that this type of mixing may induce aggregates (Kiese et al., 2008).

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Meghna Thapar 3 years, 5 months ago

Even though vaccines based on recombinant proteins offer several advantages when compared with traditional vaccines, such as safety and production cost, most of them present weak or poor immunogenicity when given alone, and thereby require the use of adjuvants to elicit a protective and long-lasting immune response. The successful use of recombinant proteins as vaccines, including hepatitis B and, more recently, HPV, was possible due to the use of aluminium salt as adjuvant. Therefore, the investigation of new adjuvants is an extremely important field in vaccinology. The main difficulties for the development of new adjuvants involve understanding their molecular complexity and the mechanisms by which they operate to stimulate or induce the immune response. For example, the mechanism of action of the aluminum salts, which are the most commonly used adjuvants in human and animal vaccines worldwide, remains unknown. However, Richard Flavell's group recently suggested that they would activate an intracellular innate immune response system called Nalp3 inflammosome. An alternative path for antigen presentation has been the use of live vectors, such as bacteria and viruses, in which their natural adjuvant properties are explored. Formulation and safety, among other concerns, are also important aspects to be considered.

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Yogita Ingle 3 years, 6 months ago

Primary Cell

Secondary Cell
Have high energy density and slow in discharge and easy to use

They are smaller energy density

There are no fluids in the cells hence it is also called as dry cells

There are made up of wet cells (flooded and liquid cells) and molten salt (liquid cells with different composition)

It has high internal resistance

It has a low internal resistance

It has an irreversible chemical reaction

It has a reversible chemical reaction

Its design is smaller and lighter

Its design is more complex and heavier

Its initial cost is cheap

Its initial cost is high

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Meghna Thapar 3 years, 6 months ago

One form of nondeletion α-thalassemia, called Hb Constant Spring (HbCS), is particularly prevalent in southeast Asia. It is caused by a chain termination mutation, which results in the synthesis of an elongated α-globin subunit that accumulates at very low levels in RBCs of affected individuals. Mutations in the HBB gene cause beta thalassemia. The HBB gene provides instructions for making a protein called beta-globin. Beta-globin is a component (subunit) of hemoglobin. Hemoglobin consists of four protein subunits, typically two subunits of beta-globin and two subunits of another protein called alpha-globin.

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