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  • 1 answers

Meghna Thapar 18 hours ago

The Lok Sabha and Rajya Sabha are the two houses of the parliament. The Lok Sabha is known as the lower house of the parliament while the Rajya Sabha is the upper house of the parliament. The Lok Sabha has up to 552 members while the maximum number of members allowed for the Rajya Sabha is 250. The Members of Parliament, Lok Sabha are directly elected by the Indian public voting in Single-member districts and the Members of Parliament, Rajya Sabha are elected by the members of all State Legislative Assembly by proportional representation.

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Yogita Ingle 20 hours ago

The Constitution of India guarantees six Fundamental Rights as follows:

  • Right to Equality
  • Right to Freedom
  • Right against Exploitation
  • Right to Freedom of Religion
  • Cultural and Educational Rights
  • Right to Constitutional Remedies These rights are of great importance because:
  • These rights assure a man for his overall development.
  • Without these rights, one’s life cannot be made worth living.
  • If these rights are violated, the court is responsible to justice.
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Gaurav Seth 21 hours ago

John Rawls: theory of Justice

• John Rawls argues that the only way we can arrive at a fair and just rule is if we imagine ourselves to be in a situation in which we have to make decisions about how society should be organised although we do not know which position we would ourselves occupy in that society.

• Rawls describes this as thinking under a ‘veil of ignorance’. He expects that in such a situation of complete ignorance about our possible position and status in society, each person would decide in the way they generally do, that is, in terms of their own interests.

• But since no one knows who he would be, and what is going to benefit him, each will predict the future society from the point of view of the worst-off.

• This would not help those who are born in a disadvantaged section of society.

• It is of course not easy to erase our identities and to imagine oneself under a veil of ignorance. But then it is equally difficult for most people to be self-sacrificing and share their good fortune with strangers.

• The merit of the ‘veil of ignorance’ position is that it expects people to just be their usual rational selves: they are expected to think for themselves and choose what they regard to be in their interest.

• Rawls therefore argues that rational thinking, not morality, could lead us to be fair and judge impartially regarding how to distribute the benefits and burdens of a society.

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Gaurav Seth 1 day, 11 hours ago

A democracy ensures that individuals have certain rights and the government recognises these rights in its constitution. Therefore, there is a list of rights provided and protected by our constitution called 'Bill of Rights'. A bill of rights gives the list of fundamental and very important rights which are important for the life and liberty of an individual. But why fundamental rights are important only to life and liberty? 

Fundamental rights are important to Life because if an individual has no life then there is no point in having a government and doing work to protect his welfare.

And if an individual has no liberty, then whatever the government does for the welfare, the individual will not be able to use it because he does not have freedom to have his goals and aspirations in life. By having freedom; then only individual can move around, talk, build oppurtunities for himself.

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Gaurav Seth 1 day, 10 hours ago


Rights and duties go hand in hand. They are closely related. If rights are the claims given to us by others. They are given by us to others.Through rights are help ourselves to develop our personality: while through duties we help others to develop their personalities. We own rights but we owe duties.

Rights are incomplete without duties. Duties are meaningless without rights. Duties are our obligations towards others. Rights are other's obligations towards us. Thus it is difficult to separate rights from duties or duties from rights. In fact they are two sides of the same coin. The existence of one necessitates the existence of the other. The two therefore are interdependent.

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Gaurav Seth 1 day, 10 hours ago


Amendments. Changes to the fundamental rights require a constitutional amendment, which has to be passed by a special majority of both houses of Parliament. This means that an amendment requires the approval of two-thirds of the members present and voting.

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Gaurav Seth 1 day, 10 hours ago

In India, like most other democracies in the world, some rights are mentioned in the Constitution. These rights are fundamental to our life and are given a special status. They are called Fundamental Rights. It talks about securing for all its citizens equality, liberty and justice. Fundamental Rights are an important basic feature of the Indian Constitution. These are preserved in the Part III of the Constitution. Importance' of Fundamental Rights: 
(i) Fundamental Rights create a feeling of security amongst the minorities in the country. 
(ii) No democracy can function in the absence of basic rights such as freedom of speech and expression. 
(iii) Fundamental Rights grant the standards of conduct, citizenship, justice and fair play. They act as a check on the government.

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Gaurav Seth 1 day, 20 hours ago

Constitution expresses the fundamental identity of people. This means the people as a collective entity come into being only through the basic constitution, this is done by agreeing to basic set of norms and principles then one constitute one’s basic political identity.


The rights mentioned in the constitution shows the very dignity of the citizens in a number of ways from equality to constitutional remedy when the rights are encroached by any powerful authority. The fundamental identity is safeguarded when all forms of discrimination as prescribed by the constitution are shed.

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Gaurav Seth 1 day, 22 hours ago

Political theory deals with the ideas and principles that shape Constitutions, governments and social life in a systematic manner. It clarifies the meaning of concepts such as freedom, equality, justice, democracy, secularism and so on. It probes the significance of principles such as rule of law, separation of powers, judicial review, etc. This is done by examining the arguments advanced by different thinkers in defense of these concepts. Though Rousseau or Marx or Gandhi did not become politicians, their ideas influenced generations of politicians everywhere. There are also contemporary thinkers who draw upon them to defend freedom or democracy in our own time. Besides examining arguments, political theorists also reflect upon our current political experiences and point out trends and possibilities for the future.

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Gaurav Seth 1 day, 21 hours ago

The political theory deals with the ideas and principles that shape constitutions, governments and social life.

We study certain values and principles and ideals also which inspired people and guided policies like democracy, freedom, equality, etc.

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Gaurav Seth 1 day, 22 hours ago


  • Politics may have different ideas to be argued upon.
  • Politics is associated with the satisfaction of wants.
  • Politics is sometimes considered to be what politicians do. But it associates them with teams due to their false commitments, etc.
  • Politics promotes the interests of an individual by all means.

Political Science:

  • It is a scientific study of political ideas and principles.
  • Political Science shapes the government and public opinion in a well-mannered way.
  • Political science examines the defections, false commitment and false promises made by politicians.
  • Political Science examines the validity of concepts of equality, justice, freedom, democracy, secularism, etc.
  • The philosophers in political science can generate the new ideas to mould the society.
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Gaurav Seth 1 day, 21 hours ago


  • Politics may have different ideas to be argued upon.
  • Politics is associated with the satisfaction of wants.
  • Politics is sometimes considered to be what politicians do. But it associates them with teams due to their false commitments, etc.
  • Politics promotes the interests of an individual by all means.

Political Science:

  • It is a scientific study of political ideas and principles.
  • Political Science shapes the government and public opinion in a well-mannered way.
  • Political science examines the defections, false commitment and false promises made by politicians.
  • Political Science examines the validity of concepts of equality, justice, freedom, democracy, secularism, etc.
  • The philosophers in political science can generate the new ideas to mould the society.
  • 1 answers

Gaurav Seth 2 days, 14 hours ago

Bureaucracy, generally, means government by the officers and it includes all the government servants who hold office on permanent basis till they retire at a fixed age. Head of the State and ministers determine the policy. Permanent government servants run the administration and enforce the laws according to that policy. There is no effect on them of the change of head of state and the ministers.

Bureaucracy has been derived from the French word ‘bureau’ which means ‘desk’. Thus, bureaucracy is a government which is run by the persons who sit on desks, means officers.

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Yogita Ingle 2 days, 20 hours ago

Three dimensions of equality are: Economic, Social and Political Equality.
Political equality means granting equal citizenship to all members of the state. equal citizenship provides certain basic rights such as right to vote, freedom of expression,  movement and association and freedom of belief to everybody. They can participate in the affairs of the country. 
Social equality means provision of equality in society. Equality of oppurtunites need to be provided so that minimum quality of life can be achieved.
Economic equality means granting equal economic oppurtunities to all. 

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Yogita Ingle 2 days, 21 hours ago

The President also has veto power by which he can withhold or refuse to give assent to Bills (other than Money Bill) passed by the Parliament. Every bill passed by the Parliament goes to the President for his assent before it becomes a law. The President can send the bill back to the Parliament asking it to reconsider the bill. This “veto’ power is limited because, if the Parliament passes the same bill again and sends it back to the President, then, the President has to give assent to that bill. However, there is no mention in the Constitution about the time limit within which the President must send the bill back for reconsideration. This means that the President can just keep the bill pending with him without any time limit. This gives the President an informal power to use the veto in a very effective manner. This is sometimes referred to as ‘pocket veto’.

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Gaurav Seth 2 days, 21 hours ago


Though required to act on the advice of the Prime Minister and the Council of Ministers, in certain matters the President may exercise discretion within reasonable limits. The following are the discretionary powers of the President of India:

  1. The President can withhold assent to a Non-Money Bill or send it back for reconsideration.
  2. There is no time limit within which the President is required to declare his assent or refusal or return the Bill for reconsideration. He can take as much time as he thinks appropriate.
  3. If no political party or leader has majority support in the Lok Sabha, the President has the freedom to decide who should be appointed as Prime Minister.
  4. In case the Prime Minister has lost the support of the Lok Sabha, he may, instead of tendering his resignation, ask for the dissolution of the House. The President is bound to act on the advice of the Prime Minister. He can also explore the possibility of forming an alternative government at the centre.
  • 2 answers

Kirti Singh 2 days, 18 hours ago


Gaurav Seth 3 days, 6 hours ago

(i) Defection in politics means moving of a person from one party to another party for some personal benefit. It means changing party allegiance from the party on which a person got elected to a different party.. 

(ii) It happens when a legislature, after having been elected from a particular party leaves it and joins in other party.

(iii) The Constitution was amended to prevent elected MLA’s and MP’s from changing parties. Now the law says that if any MLA and MP changes parties, he or she will lose seat in the legislature. 

(iv) The new law has brought defection down and has made dissent even more difficult.

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Yogita Ingle 3 days, 23 hours ago

The Prime Minister of India is the head of the government and country. He is appointed by the President of India after the political party wins a general election and nominates a candidate for the post. The leader of that political party is hence appointed as the Prime Minister of India.

Powers of Prime Minister

Prime Minister of India serves the country by performing various functions. He performs his functions taking responsibilities that are listed below

  • The leader of Country: The Prime Minister of India is the Chief Head of the Government of India.
  • Portfolio allocation: The Prime Minister has the authority to assign respective portfolios to the Ministers.
  • Chairman of the Cabinet: The Prime Minister is the chairman of the cabinet and conducts the meetings of the Cabinet. He can impose his decision if there is a crucial opinion difference and conflict among the members.
  • Official Representative of the country: Prime minister represents the country for high-level international meetings and he is the ambassador of the country.
  • The link between the President and the Cabinet: The Prime Minister acts as the link and bond between the President and cabinet. He communicates and transmits all decisions of the Cabinet to the President which is related to the administration of the affairs of the Union and proposals for legislation.
  • Head: The Prime Minister is the head of many organisation and programs like Nuclear Command Authority, NITI Aayog, Appointments Committee of the Cabinet, Department of Atomic Energy, Department of Space and Ministry of Personnel, Public Grievances and Pensions.
  • Chief Advisor: He also plays the role of chief advisor to the President
  • 2 answers

Anisha Choudhary 4 days, 21 hours ago

Discretionary power of president are: :President can send back the advice given by the council of minister and ask the council to reconsider the decision although the council can still send back the same advice and the president would then be bound by the same. :Secondly the president also has "veto power "by which he can with hold or refuse to give assent to bills that is other than money Bill passed by the parliament. :Thirdly suppose no one get majority in Iok sabha .Now after to forge alliances two or three leaders are claiming that they have the support of the majority in the house and now the president has to decide who appoint as a prime minister and this is his own discretion. I hope you got the answer..

Meghna Thapar 4 days, 21 hours ago

The president can declare a state of emergency in the following cases: 1)if the governor of the concerned state advices to do so. This power of the President is known as discretionary power. The following are the discretionary powers of the President of India: The President can withhold assent to a Non-Money Bill or send it back for reconsideration. There is no time limit within which the President is required to declare his assent or refusal or return the Bill for reconsideration.

  • 2 answers

Khushi Joseph 1 day, 21 hours ago


Gaurav Seth 4 days, 21 hours ago


• The organ of government that primarily looks after the function of implementation and administrations called the executive.

 Different Types of Executive

Presidential system

• The president is the Head of state as well as head of government.

• In this system the office of president is very powerful, both in theory and practice.

• Countries with such a system include the United States, Brazil and most nations in Latin America.


Semi-Presidential Executive

• Under the system of Executive Presidency, people directly elect the President.

• It may happen that both the President and the Prime Minister belong to the same political party or to different political parties.

• Countries with such a system include the France, Russia, Sri Lanka.


Parliamentary System

• The prime minister is the head of government.

• Most parliamentary systems have a president or a monarch who is the nominal Head of state.

• In such a system, the role of president or monarch is primarily ceremonial and prime minister along with the cabinet wields effective power.

• Countries with such system include Germany, Italy, Japan, United Kingdom as well as Portugal.

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Gaurav Seth 4 days, 21 hours ago

Class 12 sample paper has been released. Based on class 12 format class 11 sample papers will be made

Gaurav Seth 4 days, 21 hours ago

New subject-wise CBSE Sample Papers 2021 & CBSE Marking Schemes 2021 for 10th & 12th (all subjects) have been released at The Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE) has released solved CBSE Sample Papers 2021 (based on new reduced CBSE Syllabus 2020-21) & CBSE Marking Scheme 2021 (PDFs - All Subjects) for CBSE 10th & 12th Board Exams 2021 on 9th October 2020. New CBSE Marking Scheme 2021 & latest CBSE Sample Papers (based on revised & reduced NCERT & CBSE Syllabus) are important for upcoming board exam preparation. Students of CBSE Class 10th & 12th, preparing for CBSE Board Exams 2021 should study these Solved CBSE Sample Papers and their Marking Schemes to enhance their level of preparation. 

Click on the given link:

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  • 1 answers

Yogita Ingle 5 days, 23 hours ago

The right to equality provides for the equal treatment of everyone before the law, prevents discrimination on various grounds, treats everybody as equals in matters of public employment, and abolishes untouchability, and titles (such as Sir, Rai Bahadur, etc.).

 The types of  equality are:

  1. Natural
  2. Social
  3. Civil
  4. Political
  5. Economic
  6. Legal
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Gaurav Seth 6 days, 11 hours ago

Philosophy of the Constitution

Values that inspired and guided the freedom struggle and were in turn nurtured by it, formed the foundation for India’s democracy. Given below are the values embedded in the Preamble of the Indian Constitution.

We, the People of India: The Constitution has been drawn up and enacted by the people through their representatives, and not handed down to them by a king or any outside powers.

Sovereign: People have the supreme right to make decisions on internal as well as external matters. No external power can dictate the Government of India.

Socialist: Wealth is generated socially and should be shared equally by society. The government should regulate the ownership of land and industry to reduce socio-economic inequalities.

Secular: Citizens have complete freedom to follow any religion. But there is no official religion. The government treats all religious beliefs and practices with equal respect.

Democratic: A form of government where people enjoy equal political rights, elect their rulers and hold them accountable. The government is run according to some basic rules.

Republic: The head of the state is an elected person and not a hereditary position.

Justice: Citizens cannot be discriminated against on the grounds of caste, religion and gender. Social inequalities have to be reduced. The government should work for the welfare of all, especially of the disadvantaged groups.

Liberty: There are no unreasonable restrictions on the citizens in what they think, how they wish to express their thoughts and the way they wish to follow up their thoughts in action.

Equality: All are equal before the law. The traditional social inequalities have to be ended. The government should ensure equal opportunity for all.

Fraternity: All of us should behave as if we are members of the same family. No one should treat a fellow citizen as inferior.

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Joy Rana 3 days, 16 hours ago

India Adopted FPTP system because: 1. FPTP is way simpler as compares to PR. 2. PR can work in a country with less population but India has a large population so FPTP is suitable for India. 3. In PR party has no single person to represent them, party is elected collectively on the basis of their work. 4. In FPTP a single person (eg. Modi ji is the face of BJP) represent the whole party and people give vote to that party on the basis of that one person.

Gaurav Seth 1 week ago

India adopted FPTP system because -
1. The entire election system is simple to understand.
2. There is also a clear choice presented to the voters at the time of elections i.e. voters have to simply endorse a candidate or a party while voting .
3. The FPTP system offers voters a choice not simply between parties but specific candidates .
4. Makers of our constitution also felt that PR based elections may not be suitable for giving a stable a parliamentary system .
5. The FPTP system encourages voters from different social groups to come together to win an election in a locality . In a diverse country like India a PR system would encourage each community to form it's own nation-wide party. This is why FPTP system is best for India.

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Meghna Thapar 1 week ago

The Composition of constituent assembly of India ÷ The originalconstituent assembly consisted of 389 members , of which 292 were elected by the elected members of the provincial legislative assemblies while 93 members were nominated by the princely states . Functioning of the constituent assembly ÷ The first meeting of the constituent assembly took place on Dec 9 , 1946 . On Dec 13 , 1946 , Jawaharlal Nehru moved the historic ' Objectives Resolution ' in the Assembly . It laid down the fundamental and philosophy of the constitutional structure . It was unanimously adopted by the Assembly on Jan 2 , 1947 . Its modified version forms the preamble constitution .

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