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Yogita Ingle 4 days, 16 hours ago

Integrated Child Development Services (ICDS) scheme is world's largest community based programme. The scheme is targeted at children upto the age of 6 years, pregnant and lactating mothers and women 16–44 years of age. The scheme is aimed to improve the health, nutrition and education (KAP) of the target community. Launched on 2 October 1975, the scheme has completed 25 years of its operational age.

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Yogita Ingle 1 week, 2 days ago

Outsourcing has emerged as a way of doing business due to global competitive pressures for higher quality products at lower costs, ever demanding customers and emerging technologies. Need for outsourcing can be understood from the benefits which are given below:
Focusing of Attention: Business firms are realizing the importance of focusing on core areas where they have distinct ability and core competence and contracting out the rest of the activities to their outsourcing partners. A business organization needs to decide its core areas and non-core areas. Once they outsource non-core areas, they can focus their attention on selected activities. It will increase efficiency and effectiveness.
Quest for Excellence: Outsourcing enables the firms to attain excellence in two ways: (a) By focusing on activities selected, their excellence in those activities increases. (b) They excel by extending their capabilities through contracting out the remaining activities to them who excel in them.
Cost Reduction: In the age of globalization, cost reduction is of vital importance to survive in the market. Division of labour not only enhances quality but also reduces cost. For example, India is preferred as an outsourcing destination because of cost factors.
Growth through alliance: When some activities are outsourced then these alliance partners invest for the outsourced activities. Business can be expanded by same amount of investible funds as now these funds are to be invested in limited number of activities.
Fillip to Economic Development: Outsourcing stimulates entrepreneurship, employment and exports in the host countries. For example, in India there has been remarkable growth in entrepreneurship, employment and exports that today India is an undisputed leader in software development and IT enable services. But outsourcing is not an unmixed blessing. It has its own limitations. Some of which are discussed below:
Confidentiality: When a business opts for outsourcing, it has to share a lot of vital information and knowledge. This information may be leaked by the outsourcing partner. It may be against the outsourcing firm. It is also possible that the outsourcing partner starts a business of same line after getting such information.
Ethical Concerns: Many a time, outsourcing makes use of child labour and violates labour laws to reduce costs. They also discriminate in wages on the basis of ***.
Sweat Shopping: A firm which goes in for outsourcing actually transfers ‘doing’ skills rather than ‘thinking’ skills. Therefore, they do not create skilled manpower in developing countries but just take maximum benefit of low cost labour by transferring non intellectual tasks.
Resentment in their Home Countries: Outsourcing is being disliked by people in developed countries because the jobs which they could get are being transferred to developing countries through outsourcing. The problem is still more severe if there is problem of unemployment in home country of outsourcing firm.

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Gaurav Seth 1 week, 5 days ago

Public-Private Partnership refers to the involvement of private sector in the Govt, projects aimed at public benefit in the form of management expertise and monetary contribution.
The following are the main features of PPP :
PPPs are related to high priority Govt, planned projects.
(2)PPP’s main objective is to combine the skills, expertise and experience of both public and private sectors to deliver high quality services.
(3)PPPs divide the risk between public and private sector.
(4)The Govt, remains accountable for the quality and costs of the services.
(5)PPPs are used in the Govt, projects aimed at public benefit.
(6)PPPs projects lead to faster implementation and reduced life cycle.

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Gaurav Seth 1 week, 5 days ago

According to section 464(1) of the Companies Act,2013, no association or partnership consisting of more than such number of persons as may be prescribed shall be formed for the purpose of carrying on any business that has for its object the acquisition of gain by the association or partnership or by the individual members thereof, unless it is registered as a company under this Act or is formed under any other law for the time being in force: Provided that the number of persons which may be prescribed under this sub-section shall not exceed one hundred. Further, the Companies (Miscellaneous) Rules, 2014, provides that no association or partnership shall be formed, consisting of more than 50 persons for the purpose of carrying on any business that has for its objects the acquisition of gain by the association or partnership or by individual members thereof, unless it is registered as a company under the Act or is formed under any other law for the time being in force.

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Gaurav Seth 1 week, 5 days ago

It is not compulsory for partnership firms to get themselves registered. However, it is beneficial to get themselves registered because an unregistered firm has to suffer the following consequences :
1.A partner of an unregistered firm cannot file a suit against any other partner or the firm for enforcing his legal rights.
2.An unregistered firm cannot file a suit against any third party or partner for enforcing legal rights.
3.Any partner of an unregistered firm cannot claim a set off in a legal proceeding carried on against the firm by a third party for enforcing any legal right.
4.No salary or commission is provided to any of the partners.

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Yogita Ingle 2 weeks ago

Licensing Franchising
The licensor grants licence to a foreign company (licensee) to produce and sell goods under the licensor’s logo and trademarks for a fee. The franchiser grants a foreign firm (franchisee) the right to operate a business using a common brand name for an initial or a regular fee

Operations are related to production and marketing of goods.

Operations are related to the services business.

Less stringent rules and regulations Strict rules and regulations


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Yogita Ingle 2 weeks ago

Indian post and telegraph department provides various postal services across India. For providing these services the whole country has been divided into 22 postal circles. These circles manage the functioning of the various head post offices, sub-post offices and branch post offices. There are 154149 post offices and 564701 letter boxes processing 1575 crore mails every year. The various facilities provided by postal department are broadly categorized into

(i) Financial Facilities Post Office Savings Bank is the largest retail bank having 150000 plus branches. Financial facilities are provided through the post office’s savings schemes like Public Provident Fund (PPF), Kisan Vikas Patra, and National Saving Certificates apart from retail banking functions of monthly income schemes, recurring deposits, savings account, time deposits and money order facility.
(ii) Mail Facilities Mail services consist of parcel facilities that is transmission of articles from one place to another; registration facility to provide security of the transmitted articles and insurance facility to provide insurance cover for all risks in the course of transmission by post.

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Gaurav Seth 2 weeks, 4 days ago

The term ‘business risk’ refer to the possibility of inadequate profits or even losses, due to uncertainties or unexpected events. For example, the demand for a particular product may decline due to change in tastes and preferences of consumers. Decrease in demand will result in lesser sale and thereby lesser profits.
Nature of business risk : The nature of business risks can be understood in terms of its peculiar characteristics:

  1. Business risks arise due to uncertainties.
  2. Risk is an essential part of every business.
  3. Degree of risk depends mainly upon the nature and size of business.
  4. Profit is the reward for risk taking.
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Yogita Ingle 2 weeks, 4 days ago

1. Capital is contributed by central or state or both govts.
2. Public welfare or Service is the main objective.
3. Management & control are in the hands of govt.
4. It is accountable to the public.

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Yogita Ingle 2 weeks, 5 days ago

  • Accepts deposit – The bank takes deposits in the form of saving, current, and fixed deposits. The surplus balances collected from the firm and individuals are lent to the temporary required of commercial transactions.
  • Provides Loan and Advances – Another critical function of this bank is to offer loans and advances to the entrepreneurs and businesspeople and collect interest. For every bank, it is the primary source of making profits. In this process, a bank retains a small number of deposits as a reserve and offers (lends) the remaining amount to the borrowers in demand loans, overdraft, cash credit, and short-run loans etc.
  • Credit Cash- When a customer is provided with credit or loan, they are not provided with liquid cash. First, a bank account is opened for the customer and then the money is transferred to the account. This process allows a bank to create money.
  • Discounting bills of exchange – It is a written agreement acknowledging the amount of money to be paid against the goods purchased at a given point of time in future. The amount can also be cleared before the quoted time through a discounting method of a commercial bank.
  • Overdraft Facility – It is an advance given to a customer by keeping the current account to overdraw up to the given limit.
  • Purchasing and Selling of the Securities – The bank offers you with the facility of selling and buying the securities.
  • Locker Facilities – Bank provides lockers facility to the customers to keep their valuable belonging or documents safely. Banks charge a minimum of an annual fee for this service.
  • Paying and Gather the Credit – It uses different instruments like a promissory note, cheques, and bill of exchange.


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