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  • 1 answers

Yogita Ingle 1 day, 13 hours ago

The functions of retailers are as follows :

  1. Financing : Retailers provide goods to the consumers on credit basis. This increases the level of consumption and hence the standard of living.
  2. Supplying market information : Since the retailer is in direct contact with the consumers, he provides information regarding their tastes, preferences and attitudes, etc. to the wholesaler. This information helps them in taking important marketing decisions.
  3. Convenience in buying : Retailers provide goods to the consumers according to their requirements. Usually, they are situated near the residential areas and remain open for long hours.
  4. Risk bearing : A retailer has to bear the risk if the change in style and fashion occurs when the goods are stored in large quantities in the warehouses.
  • 1 answers

Yogita Ingle 1 day, 13 hours ago

Services provided by wholesalers are as follows:

  1. Buying and assembling : The wholesaler buys the product from the manufacturer and collects the same at one place and supplies goods to the retailers according to their requirement.
  2. Storage function : The wholesaler also performs the storage function. The goods are purchased by the wholesalers from the manufacturers and stored at warehouses in order to meet the demand of retailers. The wholesalers act as bridge between the production and consumption of goods.
  3. Breaking the bulk : The wholesaler purchases goods from manufacturers in bulk and avails discounts. He sells goods in small quantities to the retailers which saves the retailers from maintaining large stocks.
  4. Advertisement : A wholesaler undertakes advertising and sales promotion of the product which automatically result in the increase in sales.
  5. Market information : Wholesalers inform the retailers about the introduction of new products in the market. He also gets feedback from the retailers about the needs and preferences of customers. He passes the information to the producer to make necessary changes in the products.
  6. Risk bearing : The wholesalers have to maintain optimum levels of stock in their godowns to meet the demands of the retailer. The retailer’s risk of maintaining godowns, price fluctuations, etc., are
    reduced to a great level.
  • 1 answers

Yogita Ingle 1 day, 13 hours ago

Internal Trade When buying and selling of goods and services takes place within the geographical limits of a country. It is known as internal trade.

Types of Internal Trade Internal trade can be classified into two categories.

(i) Wholesale Trade It refers to the trade in which goods are sold in large quantities. The person who carries on wholesale trade is known as wholesaler.

A wholesaler provides many valuable services to the manufacturer as well as the retailer.

(a) Services to Manufacturer

  • Facilitating large scale production
  • Bearing risk
  • Financial assistance
  • Expert advice
  • Help in marketing function
  • Facilitate production continuity
  • Storage

(b) Services to Retailer

  • Availability of goods
  • Marketing support
  • Grant of credit
  • Specialised knowledge
  • Risk sharing

(ii) Retail Trade Retail trade refers to sale of goods in small lots to the final consumers. A retailer buys goods from a wholesaler and sells them to the consumer.

(a) Services to Consumers

  • Ready or quick supply
  • Wide variety
  • Guiding consumers
  • Demonstration and after sale services
  • Home delivery
  • Convenient location
  • Credit facility

(b) Services to Wholesaler and Manufacturer

  • Ready market
  • Providing information
  • Risk bearing
  • Distribution of goods to distant places
  • 1 answers

Gaurav Seth 5 days, 2 hours ago

As a finance manager of the company, I would advice the directors to issue the preference shares as by issuing preference shares, a company is benefited in the following ways.

1. Lifetime retention - A company need is not bound to repay the preference share capital amount during its lifetime.

2. No charge on company's assets - The preference shareholders have no right on the assets of the concerned company. So in this manner, they have no right to claim any amount (by selling-off company's assets) in case the company fails to make dividend payments.

3. No obligation - In case, the company incurs losses, then it is not required to pay dividend to its preference shareholders. 

On the other hand, debentures will not be chosen because of the following demerits of debentures.

1. ​ The legal boundation of a company to pay interest on debentures increases its payment obligations .
2. The borrowing capacity of a company gets limited with further issue of debentures.

  • 1 answers

Gaurav Seth 5 days, 2 hours ago

following are the two sources of finance that an established company can opt to expand its production capacity-
- Issue of shares- the company can issue share (equity and preference) as per its requirement in order to finance its expansion project. company has to pay an annual dividend on these shares. the decision regarding providing dividend is totally in the hands of management.

- issue of debentures- another source through which a company can finance its project is Debentures, it is th fixed charge liability against which company has to pay interest on regular intervals. debenture may be issued for short term and long term period but practically it is issued for a long term period.

other sources are loan from banks, loans from financial institutions etc
 

  • 2 answers

Yogita Ingle 5 days, 2 hours ago

 

Merits are as :
1. Financial institutions provide long-term finance, which are not provided by commercial banks.
2. Obtaining loan from financial institutions increases the goodwill of the borrowing company in the capital market. Consequently, such a company can raise funds easily from other sources as well.

3. Besides providing funds, many of the institutions provide financial, managerial and technical advice and consultancy to business firms.

4. As repayment of loan can be made in easy installments, it does not prove to be much of a burden on the business; and

5. The funds are made available even during the periods of depression, when other sources of finance are not available.

Limitations are :

1. Financial institutions are follows rigid criteria for grant of loans. Too many formalities make the procedure time-consuming and expensive.

2. Certain restrictions such as restriction on dividend payment are imposed on the powers of the borrowing company by the financial institutions.

3. Financial institutions may have their nominees on the Board of Director’s of the borrowing company there by restricting the powers of the company.

Gaurav Seth 5 days, 2 hours ago

Merits are as :

 

1. Financial institutions provide long-term finance, which are not provided by commercial banks.

2. Obtaining loan from financial institutions increases the goodwill of the borrowing company in the capital market. Consequently, such a company can raise funds easily from other sources as well.

3. Besides providing funds, many of the institutions provide financial, managerial and technical advice and consultancy to business firms.

4. As repayment of loan can be made in easy installments, it does not prove to be much of a burden on the business; and

5. The funds are made available even during the periods of depression, when other sources of finance are not available.

Limitations are :

1. Financial institutions are follows rigid criteria for grant of loans. Too many formalities make the procedure time-consuming and expensive.

2. Certain restrictions such as restriction on dividend payment are imposed on the powers of the borrowing company by the financial institutions.

3. Financial institutions may have their nominees on the Board of Director’s of the borrowing company there by restricting the powers of the company.

  • 2 answers

Yogita Ingle 5 days, 2 hours ago

Retained Profits: For any company, the amount of earnings retained within the business has a direct impact on the amount of dividends. Profit re-invested as retained earnings is profit that could have been paid as a dividend. The management of many companies believes that retained earnings are funds which do not cost anything, although this is not true. However, it is true that the use of retained earnings as a source of funds does not lead to a payment of cash. The dividend policy of the company is in practice determined by the directors. From their standpoint, retained earnings are an attractive source of finance because investment projects can be undertaken without involving either the shareholders or any outsiders. The use of retained earnings as opposed to new shares or debentures avoids issue costs. The use of retained earnings avoids the possibility of a change in control resulting from an issue of new shares. Another factor that may be of importance is the financial and taxation position of the company’s shareholders. For example, because of taxation considerations, they would rather make a capital profit (which will only be taxed when shares are sold) than receive current income, and then finance through retained earnings would be preferred to other methods.

Advantages of Retained Earnings

  • The management of many companies believe that retained earnings are funds which do not cost anything, although this is not true. However, it is true that the use of retained earnings as a source of funds does not lead to a payment of cash.
  • The dividend policy of the company is in practice determined by the directors. From their standpoint, retained earnings are an attractive source of finance because investment projects can be undertaken without involving either the shareholders or any outsiders.
  • The use of retained earnings as opposed to new shares or debentures avoids issue costs. The use of retained earnings avoids the possibility of a change in control resulting from an issue of new shares.
  • Another factor that may be of importance is the financial and taxation position of the company’s shareholders. If, for example, because of taxation considerations, they would rather make a capital profit (which will only be taxed when shares are sold) than receive current income, then finance through retained earnings would be preferred to other methods.

Disadvantages of Retained Earnings

  • A company must restrict its self-financing through retained profits because shareholders should be paid a reasonable dividend, in line with realistic expectations, even if the directors would rather keep the funds for re-investing.
  • At the same time, a company that is looking for extra funds will not be expected by investors (such as banks) to pay generous dividends, nor over-generous salaries to owner-directors.
  • Scope of retained earnings is limited by amount of profits. A loss incurring firm has no source called retained earnings.

Gaurav Seth 5 days, 2 hours ago

Retained Profits: For any company, the amount of earnings retained within the business has a direct impact on the amount of dividends. Profit re-invested as retained earnings is profit that could have been paid as a dividend. The management of many companies believes that retained earnings are funds which do not cost anything, although this is not true. However, it is true that the use of retained earnings as a source of funds does not lead to a payment of cash. The dividend policy of the company is in practice determined by the directors. From their standpoint, retained earnings are an attractive source of finance because investment projects can be undertaken without involving either the shareholders or any outsiders. The use of retained earnings as opposed to new shares or debentures avoids issue costs. The use of retained earnings avoids the possibility of a change in control resulting from an issue of new shares. Another factor that may be of importance is the financial and taxation position of the company’s shareholders. For example, because of taxation considerations, they would rather make a capital profit (which will only be taxed when shares are sold) than receive current income, and then finance through retained earnings would be preferred to other methods.

Advantages of Retained Earnings

  • The management of many companies believe that retained earnings are funds which do not cost anything, although this is not true. However, it is true that the use of retained earnings as a source of funds does not lead to a payment of cash.
  • The dividend policy of the company is in practice determined by the directors. From their standpoint, retained earnings are an attractive source of finance because investment projects can be undertaken without involving either the shareholders or any outsiders.
  • The use of retained earnings as opposed to new shares or debentures avoids issue costs. The use of retained earnings avoids the possibility of a change in control resulting from an issue of new shares.

 

  • Another factor that may be of importance is the financial and taxation position of the company’s shareholders. If, for example, because of taxation considerations, they would rather make a capital profit (which will only be taxed when shares are sold) than receive current income, then finance through retained earnings would be preferred to other methods.

Disadvantages of Retained Earnings

 

  • A company must restrict its self-financing through retained profits because shareholders should be paid a reasonable dividend, in line with realistic expectations, even if the directors would rather keep the funds for re-investing.
  • At the same time, a company that is looking for extra funds will not be expected by investors (such as banks) to pay generous dividends, nor over-generous salaries to owner-directors.
  • Scope of retained earnings is limited by amount of profits. A loss incurring firm has no source called retained earnings.
  • 1 answers

Gaurav Seth 5 days, 2 hours ago

A n s w e r: Various sources of long term funds include are as follows: Equity shares, preference shares, debentures, retained earnings, loans from financial institutions, loans from commercial banks etc.

  • 1 answers

Gaurav Seth 5 days, 2 hours ago

<th>SHARES</th> <th>DEBENTURES</th>
Share capital forms a part of the total capital of the company and shareholders are treated as owners of the company. Debentures are defined as a debt of the company and debenture holders are creditors to the company.
 Rate of Return
The dividend rate on shares fully depends upon the profits that are obtained by the company. The interest rate on debentures is fixed at the beginning of the issue of the debentures.
 Payment Condition
Shareholders are paid after the debenture holders are paid interest. Debenture holders are paid the interest before the shareholders are paid.
 Payment Obligation
Shareholders are paid dividend out of profits and if the company is in losses they don't get dividend. Debenture holders are creditors and get interest compulsorily irrespective of the company makes a profit or not.
 Winding up of Company
The shareholders of the company may lose a part or full of their capital when the company is wound up. The company should pay back the investment of debenture holders invariably when the company is wound up.
 Voting Rights
Shareholders are given right to attend and vote at the meetings of the shareholders conducted by the company. Debenture holders do not have any right to vote in the company's meetings.
 Risk Associated
Investment in shares of the company is considered as risky because shareholders are of residual interest in the company. Debentures are considered as a good investment idea because it has a right to get the investment amount back.
 Redeemable Nature
Shares are not redeemable except in the case of redeemable preference shares. Debentures are redeemable after the completion of the maturity period.
 Security
The shareholders have no security for the investment they made on shares. Debentures are very well secured because the debenture holders have a charge on assets of the company.
 Maturity Period
A shareholder of the Shares is not paid back by the company because shares have no maturity period. Debenture holders have to be paid back at the end of a maturity period of the debenture.
  • 1 answers

Yogita Ingle 5 days, 5 hours ago

Basis of Comparison

Goods

Services

Nature

Tangible

Intangible

Transfer of Ownership

Possible

Not Possible

Separable

Goods can be separated from the seller

Services cannot be separated from the service provider

Storage

Goods can be stored

Services cannot be stored

Perishable

Not all goods are perishable

Services are perishable

Production and Consumption

Goods have a significant time gap between production and consumption

Services are produced and consumed together

  • 1 answers

Gaurav Seth 6 days, 5 hours ago

The main functions of banks can be study under two broad categories :

 

(a) Primary functions.
(b) Secondary functions or subsidiary functions.

Primary functions :

1. Acceptance of Deposits : Accepting of deposits from the public is the most important function of bank. It takes the savings and surplus of people. Banks provide a safe custody of the deposited cash. Depositors can easily transfer money and can make the payments through cheques.
Banks provide an attractive rate of interest on their deposits. There are various types of deposits which can be opened in the bank like Fixed Deposit. Savings Deposit and Current Deposit.

2. Making Loans and Advances : It is another equally important functions of bank. Banks accept surplus money of people and provide loans and advances to the needy persons. It is through loans and advances, banks earn profit. Loans and advances are provided through banks in the following forms :
(i) Loan, (ii) Overdraft, (iii) Cash credit, (iv) Discounting of bills and exchange.

(i) Loan : Loan is a lumpsum advance made by a bank against security or otherwise. In it specified amount is either paid to the customer in cash or is credited in his account. The borrower is required to pay a prefixed rate of interest on the amount of loan from the date of the sanction of the loan.
The loan may be refunded in instalment or in lumpsum. Short and medium term loans are provided by commercial banks.

(ii) Overdraft: Under this system a current account holder is allowed to overdraw his bank account i.e., he can draw upto a fixed limit more than the balance in his account withdrawal at any time.

(iii) Cash-credit: In cash credit, a customer is given credit upto a definite limit against a surety bond or against other securities. The interest is charged on the amount overdrawn by customer on the daily balance and not on the entire amount of the limit.

(iv) Discounting of Bills of Exchange : Bill of Exchange is a negotiable instrument. It is drawn by the seller and is accepted by the buyer. The drawer has got a facility to discount the bill of exchange before maturity if money is required immediately. The bank discounts the bill and deducts a certain amount as discounting charges and pays the remaining money to the drawer.

Secondary functions subsidiary functions can be classified as :

(a) Agency functions
(b) Utility functions.

(a) Agency functions : These are the functions which banks perform as an agent of their customers.

1. Collection of cheques and bills : It collects local and outstation cheques, drafts, bills of exchange, and promissory notes of its customers and credit to their account.

2. Collection of Interest and Dividend : It also collects interest and dividend on debentures and securities held by its customers.

3. Purchase and sale of securities : On instructions from its customers banks purchase or sell stock securities, debentures, bonds etc.

(b) Utility functions : Banks provide the following utility or miscellaneous functions :

1. Safe custody of customers' valuable articles and securities : Some banks provide the facilities of lockers where on nominal rent a customer can keep its valuable articles such as ornaments, jewellery etc.

2. Facility of Foreign Exchange : After obtaining a license from the Reserve Bank of India, commercial banks can deal in foreign exchange. The banks can exchange the various foreign currencies and even discount foreign bills of exchange.

3. Provide Trade Informations : Banks provide useful trade information to its customer through publishing various journals.

  • 1 answers

Gaurav Seth 6 days, 8 hours ago

The import trade is referred to goods and services purchased into one nation from another. The word “import” originates from the word “port” considering the fact that the products are frequently transported via ship to foreign countries. 

Example : Person A of India imported hi tech machine from Japan

The given case is Import trade. Japan's good is coming to India

  • 0 answers
  • 1 answers

Gaurav Seth 6 days, 12 hours ago

BUSINESS ETHICS Refers to the moral values or standards or norms which govern the activities of a businessman. Ethics define what is right and what is wrong. By ethic we mean the business practices which are desirable from the point of view of Society. The purpose of business ethics is to guide the managers and employees in performing their job. Example of business ethics are charging fair price from customers, giving fair treatment to workers, earning reasonable profits and paying taxes tithe government honestly.

  • 1 answers

Yogita Ingle 1 week ago

It is not compulsory for partnership firms to get themselves registered. However, it is beneficial to get themselves registered because an unregistered firm has to suffer the following consequences :
1.A partner of an unregistered firm cannot file a suit against any other partner or the firm for enforcing his legal rights.
2.An  unregistered firm cannot file a suit against any third party or partner for enforcing legal rights.
3. Any partner of an unregistered firm cannot claim a set off in a legal proceeding carried on against the firm by a third party for enforcing any legal right.
4. No salary or commission is provided to any of the partners.

  • 1 answers

Gaurav Seth 1 week ago

Internal Trade :
Internal trade is done within the geographical boundaries of a country. As an example, trade done amongst the traders of Delhi, Mumbai, Chennai, Kanpur and Amritsar etc. is called Internal Trade.

Types of Internal Trade :

(i) Wholesale Trade : It involves purchase and sale of goods in wholesale quantities. Large quantities of goods purchased from manufacturer are sold in small quantities to various retailers.

(ii) Retail : It involves the sale of goods to consumers by the retailers. A retailer buys the goods from a wholesaler and sells them to customers in their required quantities. It is a link between a wholesaler and consumer. Different types of goods are available at a retailer shop so that a customer could buy the goods of his own choice.

Internal trade can also be classified as : (a) Local Trade, (b) State Trade, (c) Inter-State Trade.

 

External Trade : 
Whenever trade occurs between two countries, it is known as external trade. In foreign trade, both buyer and seller live in different countries. If Reliance Ltd. sells Polyester Yarn to a French firm or L&T Ltd. purchases a heavy machine from a Swiss firm, these would classified as external trade.

Types of External Trade :

1. Import Trade : When the trader of one country buys the goods from foreign countries, it is known as import trade for the trader who buys the goods.

2. Export Trade : When the trader of a country sells goods to a foreign country, it is known as export trade for the trade who sells the goods e.g., if a tea firm of Darjeeling sells tea to U.K., it is export trade.

3. Entrepot Trade : The goods imported from one country for export to another country, is known as entrepot trade. It is also known as Re-export. It is done when a country does not have her own seaport or not having good political relations with other countries or no direct access to those countries from where goods are to be imported.

  • 1 answers

Yogita Ingle 1 week ago

Synthetic industry : In this industry, two or more materials are mixed together to create a new product. For example, producing soap, biscuits, etc.

  • 4 answers

Kamakshi Soni 1 week, 1 day ago

aglasem Home  Schools / Boards  CBSE CBSE Class 11 Business Studies Notes : Emerging Modes of Buisness by Anuj William    April 22, 2019   Reading Time: 3min read    9 SHARES 1. e-business e-business refers to “Carrying on business activities through internet.” 2. Scope of e-business (i) B2B Commerce Transaction taking place between business units are known as B2B transaction. These transactions may involve (a) Creation of utility (b) Collaborations (c) Commercial negotiations (d) Inviting tenders (ii) B2C Commerce The transaction taking place between business units and customers are known as B2C transaction. B2C transaction may involve (a) Selling and distribution (b) After sale service (c) Promotion and other marketing activities (iii) C2C Commerce The transaction taking place between customer and customers are known as C2C transaction C2C transactions may involve (a) Selling used books, clothes etc (b) Selling antique items (c) Information about the quality and durability of products etc (iv) Intra b-commerce This refers to transactions between the parties or persons who are the part of one firm only. Intra b-commerce transactions may involve (a) Interaction between any two departments of one firm (b) Placing orders and giving instructions of suppliers (c) Recruitment selection and training of employees. 3. Merits (i) Easy to form and lower investment is required (ii) Convenience (iii) Speed (iv) Global reach (v) Cost saving (vi) Movement towards a paperless society 4. Limitations (1) Low personal touch (ii) Delay in delivery (iii) Requirement of hardware (iv) Risk (v) Low ethics Most of the limitations discussed can be over come with due care and diligence. Some of the way to over come problems are taken up (i) Websites are becoming more and more interactive (ii) The speed and the quality of communication is improving (iii) India has undertaken 150 such projects to diffuse e-commerce in all nooks and corners 5. On Line Transactions e-business refers to shopping through internet or on-line. On-line opens up the whole world as one shop. There are three phases of doing business in e-business or on-line. (i) Registration Before on-line shopping one has to register with the on-line vendor by filling up a registration form. (ii) Placing an Order In on-line transactions the order can be placed by picking and dropping the items in the shopping cart. (iii) Payment Mechanism In an on-line purchase payment is made through (a) Cash on delivery (b) Through cheque (c) Net banking transfer (d) Credit or debit card (e) Digital cash 6. Security security Problems Related to e-commerce The main security problem of e-commerce are (i) Transactional risk (ii) Data storage risk (iii) Risk of thread to intellectual property and privacy 7. Resources Required for Successful e-business Implementation of e-business (i) Computer hardware (ii) Technically qualified staff (iii) Computerised system of receiving payment (iv) Well designed website (iv) Telecommunication facilities 8. Outsourcing Concept BOP refers to getting a business task accomplished through an outside agency. (i) Advantages (a) Concentration on core competence (b) Reduction in cost (c) Help to avoid labour problem (d) Benefits of latest development (ii) Limitations (a) Confidentiality (b) Sweat shopping (c) Protest in home country (d) Ethical concerns (iii) Types of Outsourced Services (a) Financial Services Big companies often need services of specialists for managing finance. e.g., estimating the finance required, how and when to issue shares, debentures. (b) Advertising Services For a long time the firms are depending upon outsourcing services. The business firms hand over the task of designing and carrying on advertisement campaign to outsourcing firm. (c) Courier Services Courier services refers to postal services provided by the private firms for carrying mails, parcels etc. The common problem of government postal services was delay. The private outsources offer speedy movement of parcels and samples so business firm relay on them. (d) Customer Support Services All durable goods require after sale or customer support service to register and attend the complaints of the customers. So firms prefer to outsource these services to outside agencies which are specialised in these tasks.

Gaurav Seth 1 week, 1 day ago

Scope of e-Business

It can be understood by the view point of the parties involved and making transactions:

1. B2B Commerce: It is that business activity in which two firms or two business units make electronic transaction. For example- one can be producer firm and other a supplier firm.

2. B2C Commerce – Business to customer. In this one party is a firm and other party is a customer. On one hand a customer can seek information through Internet about products, place orders, get some items and make payments and on the other hand the firm can make a survey any time to know who is buying and can also know the satisfaction level of customers. In modern times, call centers can provide these information.

3. Intra-B Commerce Within business Commerce – Under it, the parties involved in the electronic transaction are the two departments of same business. For Example, through internet it is possible for the marketing department to interact constantly with the production department and get the customized goods made as per the requirement of customers.

4. C2C Commerce – Customer to Customer Commerce – Under it, both the parties involved in electronic transaction are customers. It is required for the buying and selling of those goods for which there are no established markets. For example-selling old car through internet.

5. C2B Commerce – C2B Commerce provides the Consumers with the freedom of shopping at will. Customer can make use of call centers to make toll free calls to make queries and lodge complaints.

6. B2E Commerce – Companies reporting to personnel recruitment, interview and selection and training etc. via B2E Commerce.

Sahil Singh 1 week, 1 day ago

Padha toh tha but yaad nhi aa raha

Sahil Singh 1 week, 1 day ago

🤔
  • 1 answers

Gaurav Seth 1 week, 1 day ago

It will not affect

 Perpetual Succession Company is a legal entity separate of its owners or members. It can be brought to an end only by law as it is created by the law. It will only cease to exist when a specific procedure for its closure, called winding up, is completed. Members may come and go, but the company continues to exist through consecutive succession of old members by new members on a continuous basis. We can say that ‘perpetual succession’ implies permanent existence which is not affected by death, retirement insolvency of members.

  • 2 answers

Kamakshi Soni 1 week, 1 day ago

Company form of business organisation suffers from the following limitations : 1.Complexity in formation : The formation of a company is a very time consuming, expensive and complex process. It involves a lot of documentation, legal formalities, etc. 2.Lack of secrecy : The Companies Act has made it compulsory for a public company to provide a lot of information to the public as well as to the office of the Registrar of Companies from time to time. This makes it difficult for the company to maintain secrecy about its operations. 3.Impersonal work environment:Separation of ownership and management results in lack of motivation. Officers of the company may not take sufficient initiatives and personal efforts for the betterment of the company. Due to the large size of a company, it is very difficult for the top management to maintain personal contact with the employees, customers and creditors.

Gaurav Seth 1 week, 2 days ago

Company form of business organisation suffers from the following limitations :
1.Complexity in formation : The formation of a company is a very time consuming, expensive and complex process. It involves a lot of documentation, legal formalities, etc.
2.Lack of secrecy : The Companies Act has made it compulsory for a public company to provide a lot of information to the public as well as to the office of the Registrar of Companies from time to time. This makes it difficult for the company to maintain secrecy about its operations.
3.Impersonal work environment:Separation of ownership and management results in lack of motivation. Officers of the company may not take sufficient initiatives and personal efforts for the betterment of the company. Due to the large size of a company, it is very difficult for the top management to maintain personal contact with the employees, customers and creditors.

  • 1 answers

Yogita Ingle 1 week, 2 days ago

The leader of the Jacobin club was Maximilian Robespierre.

The Jacobins or the society of the Friends of the Constitution was the most famous and influential club prior to the French Revolution. 

The Jacobin gots its name from the former convent of St Jacob in Paris. 

It became an important rallying point for people who wished to discuss government policies and plan their own forms of action.

The member of Jacobin club belonged mainly to the less wealthy society which included small shopkeepers, printers, artisans like shoe-makers, watch-makers, servants, daily- wage workers, party cooks etc.

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