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Posted by Megha Seervi 1 day, 16 hours ago
Global Depository Receipts (GDR) They are the depository receipts denominated in US dollars issued by depository hank to which the local currency shares of a company are delivered. GDR is a negotiable instrument and can be traded freely like any other security. In the Indian context, a GDR is an instrument issued abroad by an Indian company to raise funds in some foreign currency and is listed and traded on a foreign stock exchange.
Posted by Hemant Ritesh Sourashtriya 3 days, 13 hours ago
Posted by Hemant Ritesh Sourashtriya 3 days, 13 hours ago
Posted by Sandeep Rathore 4 days, 12 hours ago
Posted by Ravi Sidhu Sidhu 5 days, 6 hours ago
India is a developing country and in developing countries the scope of small scale industries are very wide.
It is contributing to the socio-economic development in the following wags
(i) Contribution in GDP Small industries in India account for 95 % of the industrial units in the country. They contribute almost 40 % of the gross industrial value added in the economy.
(ii) Contribution in Exports 45% of the total exports from India come from small scale industries. Gems and jewellery, handicrafts, sports goods, etc are some items of exports from small scale sector.
(iii) Employment Generation Small industries are the second largest employers of human resources after agriculture and generate more number of employment opportunities per unit of capital invested compared to large industries.
(iv) Variety of Production Small industries produce a wide variety of products ranging from mass consumption goods, readymade garments, hosiery goods, stationery items, soaps and detergents, domestic utensils, leather, plastic and rubber goods, processed foods and vegetables, wood and steel furniture, paints, varnishes, safety matches, etc. They also produce sophisticated items like electric and electronic goods, drugs and pharmaceuticals, agricultural tools and equipment and several other engineering products. Handlooms, handicrafts and other products from traditional village industries add to this diverse production from such industries.
(v) Regional Balance Small industries contribute significantly to the balanced development of the country as they produce simple products using simple technologies and depend on locally available resources. Both material and labour can be set up anywhere in the country.
(vi) Entrepreneurship Development Small industries provide opportunity for entrepreneur¬ship development in the country. The latent skills and talents of people can be transformed into business ideas with little capital investment and almost nil formalities to start a small business.
Posted by Kriahan Tiwari 5 days, 10 hours ago
Risk is an essential part of every business : Every business is subject to one or the other kind of risk. No business can avoid risk. Though risk can be minimized but can’t be eliminated.
Posted by Ayshaa Zareen 5 days, 12 hours ago
E-business has its own limitations as discussed below
(i) Low Personal Touch e-business lacks the warmth of interpersonal interactions and personal touch for satisfaction of customer. Thus, it is relatively less suitable mode of business for product categories requiring personal touch for convincing the customers such as garments, etc.
(ii) In congruence between Order Taking/Giving and Order Fulfillment Speed In e-business, orders can be placed at the click of a mouse, but the physical delivery of the product takes time. Customers are sometimes not patient enough to bear with this in congruence. At times, the users even get frustrated due to technical reasons when websites take unusually long time to open.
(iii) Need for Technology Capability and Competence of Parties to e-business The parties to be fairly familiar with computers and internet is required by e-business. The digital divide has thus limited the use of e-business.
(iv) Increased Transaction Risk Internet transactions occur between cyber personalities and it is difficult to establish the identity of the parties or know the location from where the parties may be operating, e-business is also risky due to additional hazards of impersonation and leakage of confidential information such as credit card details. Problems of ‘virus’ attacks and ‘hacking’ also pose security concerns in e-business.
(v) Resistance to Change The process of adjustment to new technology and new way of doing things causes stress and a sense of insecurity due to change. As a result, people may resist a change from traditional business to e-business.
(vi) Ethical Fallouts Companies use an ‘electronic eye’ to keep track of the computer files, e-mail account and the websites visited by their employees or others who use their network systems which is not considered right on ethical grounds.
But most of the limitations of e-business discussed above are in the process of being overcome. Websites are becoming more and more interactive to overcome the problem of ‘low touch.’ Speed and quality of communication through internet is being improved through communication technology innovations.
Efforts are on to overcome the digital divide through setting up of community tele-centres in villages and rural areas with the involvement of government agencies, NGOs and international institutions. Thus, we can say that despite limitations, e-business is here to stay and bring a positive change in the businesses, governance and the economies.
Even the transaction risks and data transmission risks are minimized with the use of secure payment sites, use of antivirus programs and encrypting of data to safeguard the customers
Posted by Hemant Ritesh Sourashtriya 6 days, 1 hour ago
E-banking means any user with a PC and a browser can get connected to the banks’ website to perform any of the virtual banking functions and avail of any of the banks services. There is no human operator to respond to the needs of the customer.
Posted by Gaurav Singh 1 week ago
Posted by Rishika Raj 1 week ago
The capital obtained by issue of equity shares is known as equity share capital. It is the important source of obtaining the long term finance. Equity shareholders are the owners of the company. The rate of dividend is paid after meeting all other claims. They have a right to vote and participate in the management of the company. They enjoy the reward as well as bear the risk.
Posted by Shrey Vishwakarma 1 week, 1 day ago
<th>BASIS FOR COMPARISON</th> <th>EQUITY SHARES</th> <th>PREFERENCE SHARES</th>
|Meaning||Equity shares are the ordinary shares of the company representing the part ownership of the shareholder in the company.||Preference shares are the shares that carry preferential rights on the matters of payment of dividend and repayment of capital.|
|Payment of dividend||The dividend is paid after the payment of all liabilities.||Priority in payment of dividend over equity shareholders.|
|Repayment of capital||In the event of winding up of the company, equity shares are repaid at the end.||In the event of winding up of the company, preference shares are repaid before equity shares.|
|Rate of dividend||Fluctuating||Fixed|
|Voting rights||Equity shares carry voting rights.||Normally, preference shares do not carry voting rights. However, in special circumstances, they get voting rights.|
|Convertibility||Equity shares can never be converted.||Preference shares can be converted into equity shares.|
|Arrears of Dividend||Equity shareholders have no rights to get arrears of the dividend for the previous years.||Preference shareholders generally get the arrears of dividend along with the present year's dividend, if not paid in the last previous year, except in the case of non-cumulative preference shares.|
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