CBSE - Class 11 - Geography - NCERT Textbook (PDF)

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NCERT Textbook (PDF) for Class 11 Geography

Download NCERT Textbook (PDF) for CBSE Class 11 Geography Geography As a Discipline Geography As a Discipline Geography as an integrating discipline; as a science of spatial attributes. Branches of geography: importance of physical geography

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Download NCERT Textbook (PDF) for CBSE Class 11 Geography The Origin and Evolution of the Earth (Not for Exams) The Origin And Evolution of The Earth. Origin of the earth. Early theories. Modern Theories 4. Big Bang theory 5. The star formation 6. formation of planets 7. Our solar system . The moon 9. Evolution of the earth. Development of lithosphere . Evolution of Atmosphere and hydrosphere . Origin of life

Download NCERT Textbook (PDF) for CBSE Class 11 Geography Interior of The Earth Interior of The Earth. Sources of information of about the earth interior, direct sources, Indirect sources , earth quake, Earth quake waves, Propagation of earthquake waves, emergence of shadow zone, types of earthquakes, effects of earthquakes, structure of the earth, the crust, The mantle, the core, volcanoes and volcanic landforms, types of volcanoes, shield volcano, composite volcanoes, caldera, flood basalt provinces, mid ocean ridge volcanoes, volcanic landforms intrusive forms, plutonic rocks, batholiths, laccoliths, lapolith, phacolith ,sills & dykes.

Download NCERT Textbook (PDF) for CBSE Class 11 Geography Distribution of Oceans and Continents Distribution of Oceans and Continents. ABRAHAM ORTELIUS a Duchy map maker 1596 first proposed the possibility of joining the continents such as America with Europe and Africa ANTONIO PELLEGRINI drew the map showing the three continents together.

Download NCERT Textbook (PDF) for CBSE Class 11 Geography Minerals and Rocks Minerals and Rocks. Minerals, elements, characteristics of minerals such as crystal form cleavage, fracture, lustre, colour, streak, transparency, structure, hardness specific grvity, important minerals such as feldspar, quartz, pyroxene, amphibole, mica, olivine and their characteristics classification of minerals, rocks, igneous, sedimentary, metamorphic rocks rock cycle Minerals found in the crust are in solid form where as in intrior they are in liquid form98% of the crust consist of eight elements

Download NCERT Textbook (PDF) for CBSE Class 11 Geography Geomorphic Processes Geomorphic Processes. This chapter deals with Geomorphic process, exogenic, endogenic processes, diastrophism, volcanism, weathering, types of weathering mechnical(unloading, expansion, temperature change expansion freezing thawing frost wedging salt weathering ), chemical (solution, carnonation, hydration oxidation and reduction),biological (plants, animals man).biological activity and weathering, special effects of weathering, significance of weathering, mass movement, slow movement, rapid movementland slide, erosion , deposition, soilformtion, process of soil formation soil forming factors, parent material, topography, climate, biological activity, time.

Download NCERT Textbook (PDF) for CBSE Class 11 Geography Landforms and Their Evolution (Not for Exams) Landforms and Their Evolution. After weathering, geomorphic agents operate the landforms to change. Land form: small to medium reacts or parcels of the earth’s surface are called landforms. Several landforms together are called landscape Each landform has its own shape, size and materials Geomorphological processes are slow but significant in long run

Download NCERT Textbook (PDF) for CBSE Class 11 Geography Composition and Structure of Atmosphere Composition and Structure of Atmosphere. Air is essential to the survival of all organisms. Some organisms like humans may survive for some time without food and water but can’t survive even a few minutes without breathing air. That shows the reason why we should understand the atmosphere in greater detail.

Download NCERT Textbook (PDF) for CBSE Class 11 Geography Solar Radiation Heat Balance And Temperature Solar Radiation, Heat Balance And Temperature. Solar radiation, variability of insolation at the surface of the earth heating and cooling of atmosphere, terrestrial radiation, heat budget of the planet earth, latitudinal variation in net radiation balance, temperature, factors influencing the temperature (such as the latitude, altitude, distance from the sea air mass ocean currents) distribution of temperature, isotherm.

Download NCERT Textbook (PDF) for CBSE Class 11 Geography Atmospheric Circulation And Weather Systems (Not for Exams) Atmospheric Circulation And Weather Systems. Atmospheric pressure, vertical variation pressure, horizontal distribution of pressure, world distribution of sea level pressure, factors affecting the velocity and direction of wind( pressure gradient force, frictional force, carioles force, pressure and wind, ) general circulation of the atmosphere, ENSO seasonal wind, local winds land and sea breezes mountain and valley winds, air masses , fronts, exratropical cyclone tropical cyclones, thunderstorms, tornadoes.

Download NCERT Textbook (PDF) for CBSE Class 11 Geography Water in the Atmosphere Water in the Atmosphere. This chapter deals with Humidity, types of humidity, relative humidity, absolute humidity, specific humidity, dew point, condensation, saturated air, types of precipitation -dew, frost, fog, mist, clouds cirrus, cumulus, stratus, nimbus, precipitation, types-(rainfall, sleet, snowfall, hailstones,)rainfall types convectional type, orographic rainfall, cyclonic rainfall, world distribution of rainfall.

Download NCERT Textbook (PDF) for CBSE Class 11 Geography World Climate and Climate Change (Not for Exams) World Climate and Climate Change. The world climate can be studied by organizing information and data on climate and synthesizing them in smaller units for easy understanding, description and analysis. Three broad approaches have been adopted for classifying climate. They are empirical, genetic and applied. Empirical classification is based on observed data, particularly on temperature and precipitation. Genetic classification attempts to organize climates according to their causes. Applied classification is for specific purpose.

Download NCERT Textbook (PDF) for CBSE Class 11 Geography Water Oceans (Not for Exams) Water (Oceans). The earth, fortunately has an abundant supply of water on its surface. Hence, our planet is called the ‘Blue Planet’. HYDROLOGICAL CYCLE The hydrological cycle, is the circulation of water within the earth’s hydrosphere in different forms i.e. the liquid, solid and the gaseous phases. It also refers to the continuous exchange of water between the oceans,

Download NCERT Textbook (PDF) for CBSE Class 11 Geography Movements of Ocean Water Movements of Ocean Water.The ocean water is dynamic. Its physical characteristics like temperature, salinity, density and the external forces like of the sun, moon and the winds influence the movement of ocean water. The horizontal and vertical motions are common in ocean water bodies. The horizontal motion refers to the ocean currents and waves. The vertical motion refers to tides.

Download NCERT Textbook (PDF) for CBSE Class 11 Geography Life on the Earth Life on the Earth. Living organisms of the earth, constituting the biosphere, interact with other environmental realms. The biosphere includes all the living components of the earth. It consists of all plants and animals, including all the micro- organisms that live on the planet earth and their interactions with the surrounding environment.

Download NCERT Textbook (PDF) for CBSE Class 11 Geography Biodiversity and Conservation Biodiversity and Conservation. Biodiversity as we have today is the result of 2.5-3.5 billion years of evolution. Before the advent of humans, our earth supported more biodiversity than in any other period. Since, the emergence of humans, however, biodiversity has begun a rapid decline, with one species after another bearing the brunt of extinction due to overuse.

Download NCERT Textbook (PDF) for CBSE Class 11 Geography India-Location India - Location. India with its area of 3.28 million sq. km accounts for 2.4 per cent of the world’s land surface area and stands as the seventh largest country in the world.

Download NCERT Textbook (PDF) for CBSE Class 11 Geography Structure and Physiography (Not for Exams) Structure and Physiography. Structure and Relief; physiographic divisions Drainage systems: concept of water sheds — the Himalayan and the Peninsular

Download NCERT Textbook (PDF) for CBSE Class 11 Geography Drainage System Drainage System. The flow of water through well-defined channels is known as ‘drainage’ The network of such channels is called a ‘drainage system’. The drainage pattern of an area is the outcome of the geological time period, nature and structure of rocks, topography, slope, amount of water flowing and the periodicity of the flow.

Download NCERT Textbook (PDF) for CBSE Class 11 Geography Climate (Not for Exams) Climate Weather and climate - spatial and temporal distribution of temperature, pressure, winds and rainfall; Indian monsoons: mechanism, onset and variability - spatial and temporal; climatic types Natural vegetation - forest types and distribution; wild life conservation; biosphere reserves Soils - major types and their distribution, soil degradation and conservation

Download NCERT Textbook (PDF) for CBSE Class 11 Geography Natural Vegetation Natural vegetation refers to a plant community that has been left undisturbed over a long time, so as to allow its individual species to adjust themselves to climate and soil conditions as fully as possible.

Download NCERT Textbook (PDF) for CBSE Class 11 Geography Soils Soils. In ancient times, soils used to be classified into two main groups - Urvara and Usara, which were fertile and sterile, respectively. In the 16th centrury A.D., soils were classified on the basis of their inherent characteristics and external features

Download NCERT Textbook (PDF) for CBSE Class 11 Geography Natural Hazards and Disasters (Not for Exams) Natural Hazards and Disasters. Disaster is an undesirable occurrence resulting from forces that are largely outside human control, strikes quickly with little or no warning, which causes or threatens serious disruption of life and property including death and injury to a large number of people, and requires therefore, mobilisation of efforts in excess of that which are normally provided by statutory emergency services

Download NCERT Textbook (PDF) for CBSE Class 11 Geography Introduction to Maps Introduction to Maps. The history of map making is as old as the history of itself. The oldest map was found in Mesopotamia drawn on a clay tablet that belongs to 2,500 B.C.

Download NCERT Textbook (PDF) for CBSE Class 11 Geography Map Scale A Map Scale provides the relationship between the map and the whole or a part of the earth's surface shown on it. We can also express this relationship as a ratio of distance between two points on the ground.

Download NCERT Textbook (PDF) for CBSE Class 11 Geography Latitude Longitude and Time Latitude, Longitude and Time. There are 90 southern latitudes and 90 northern latitudes and 180 eastern longitudes and 180 western longitudes.

Download NCERT Textbook (PDF) for CBSE Class 11 Geography Map Projections (Not for Exams) Map Projections. The need for a map projection mainly arises to have a detailed study of region, which is not possible to do from a globe.

Download NCERT Textbook (PDF) for CBSE Class 11 Geography Topographical Maps (Not for Exams) Topographical Maps which are also known as general purpose maps, are drawn at relatively large scales. These maps show important natural and cultural features such as relief, vegetation, water bodies, cultivated land, settlements,a and transportation networks, etc. They serve the purpose of base maps and are used to draw all the other maps.

Download NCERT Textbook (PDF) for CBSE Class 11 Geography Introduction to Aerial Photographs Introduction to Aerial Photographs in India for the first time in 1920 when large scale aerial photographs of Agra city were obtained.Subsequently, Air Survey Party of the Survey of India took up aerial survey of Irrawaddy Delta forests, which was completed during 1923-24.

Download NCERT Textbook (PDF) for CBSE Class 11 Geography Introduction to Remote Sensing Introduction to Remote Sensing. A sensor is a device that gathers electromagnetic radiations, converts it into a signal and presents itin a form suitable for obtaining information about the objects under investigation.

Download NCERT Textbook (PDF) for CBSE Class 11 Geography Weather Instruments Maps and Charts Weather Instruments, Maps and Charts. Weather denotes the atmospheric conditions of weather elements at a particular place and time. The weather elements include temperature, pressure, wind, humidity and cloudiness.

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