Download CBSE Revision Notes for CBSE Class 10 Social Science Term 1 - HIS The Rise of Nationalism in Europe HIS The Rise of Nationalism in Europe: (a)The growth of nationalism in Europe after the 1830s. (b) The ideas of Giuseppe Mazzini, etc. (c) General characteristics of the movements in Poland, Hungary, Italy, Germany and Greece.
Download CBSE Revision Notes for CBSE Class 10 Social Science Term 2 - HIS Nationalism in India HIS Nationalism in India: (a) First world war, Khilafat, Non-Cooperation and Civil Disobedience Movement. (b) Salt Satyagraha. (c) Movements of peasants, workers, tribals. (d) Activities of different political roups.
Download CBSE Revision Notes for CBSE Class 10 Social Science Term 2 - HIS The Making of a Global World (PT Only) HIS The Making of a Global World: (a) Contrast between the form of industrialization in Britain and India. (b) Relationship between handicrafts and industrial production, formal and informal sectors. (c) Livelihood of workers. Case studies: Britain and India.
Download CBSE Revision Notes for CBSE Class 10 Social Science Term 2 - HIS The Age of Industrialisation (PT Only) HIS The Age of Industrialisation: (a) Patterns of urbanization (b) Migration and the growth of towns. (c) Social change and urban life. (d) Merchants, middle classes, workers and urban poor.
Download CBSE Revision Notes for CBSE Class 10 Social Science HIS Print Culture and the Modern World (Deleted) HIS Print Culture and the Modern World: (a) The history of print in Europe. (b) The growth of press in nineteenth century India. (c) Relationship between print culture, public debate and politics.
Download CBSE Revision Notes for CBSE Class 10 Social Science Term 1 - GEO Resources and Development GEO Resources and Development :Types - natural and human; Need for resource planning, natural resources, land as a resource, soil types and distribution; changing land-use pattern; land degradation and conservation measures.
Download CBSE Revision Notes for CBSE Class 10 Social Science GEO Forest and Wildlife Resources (Deleted) GEO Forest and Wildlife Resources: Types and distribution, depletion of flora and fauna; conservation and protection of forest and wild life.
Download CBSE Revision Notes for CBSE Class 10 Social Science Term 1 - GEO Water Resources (PT-Theory & Board-Maps) GEO Water Resources: Sources, distribution, utilisation, multi-purpose projects, water scarcity, need for conservation and management, rainwater harvesting. (One case study to be introduced)
Download CBSE Revision Notes for CBSE Class 10 Social Science Term 1 - GEO Agriculture GEO Agriculture: Types of farming, major crops, cropping pattern, technological and institutional reforms; their impact; contribution of Agriculture to national economy - employment and output.
Download CBSE Revision Notes for CBSE Class 10 Social Science Term 2 - GEO Minerals and Energy Resources (PT-Theory, Board-Map) GEO Minerals and Energy Resources: Types of minerals, distribution, use and economic importance of minerals, conservation, types of power resources: conventional and non-conventional, distribution and utilization, and conservation.
Download CBSE Revision Notes for CBSE Class 10 Social Science Term 2 - GEO Manufacturing Industries GEO Manufacturing Industries: Types, spatial distribution, contributionof industries to the national economy, industrial pollution and degradation of environment, measures to control degradation. (One case study to be introduced)
Download CBSE Revision Notes for CBSE Class 10 Social Science Term 2 - GEO Life Lines of National Economy GEO Life Lines of National Economy: the importance of transport and communication in the ever shrinking world
Download CBSE Revision Notes for CBSE Class 10 Social Science Term 1 - POL Power sharing POL Power sharing: Why and how is power shared in democracies?, To what extent has decentralisation achievedthis objective? How does democracy accommodate different social groups?
Download CBSE Revision Notes for CBSE Class 10 Social Science Term 1 - POL Federalism POL Federalism: How has federal division of power in India helped national unity? To what extent has decentralisation achievedthis objective? How does democracy accommodate different social groups?
Download CBSE Revision Notes for CBSE Class 10 Social Science POL Democracy and Diversity (Deleted) POL Democracy and Diversity: Are divisions inherent to the working of democracy? How do communal divisions affect democracy?
Download CBSE Revision Notes for CBSE Class 10 Social Science POL Gender Religion and Caste (Deleted) POL Gender Religion and Caste: What has been the effect of caste on politics and of politics on caste? How has the gender division shaped politics?
Download CBSE Revision Notes for CBSE Class 10 Social Science POL Popular Struggles and Movements (Deleted) POL Popular Struggles and Movements: How do struggles shape democracy in favour of ordinary people? Which are the major national and regional parties in India?
Download CBSE Revision Notes for CBSE Class 10 Social Science Term 2 - POL Political Parties POL Political Parties: What role do political parties playin competition and contestation? Why have social movements come to occupy large role in politics?
Download CBSE Revision Notes for CBSE Class 10 Social Science Term 2 - POL Outcomes of Democracy POL Outcomes of Democracy: Can or should democracy be judged by its outcomes? What outcomes can one reasonably expect of democracies? Does democracy in India meet these expectations? Has democracy led to development, security and dignity for the people? What sustains democracy in India?
Download CBSE Revision Notes for CBSE Class 10 Social Science POL Challenges to Democracy (Deleted) POL Challenges to Democracy: Is the idea of democracy shrinking? What are the major challenges to democracy in India? How can democracy be reformed and deepened? What role can an ordinary citizen play in deepening democracy?
Download CBSE Revision Notes for CBSE Class 10 Social Science Term 1 - ECO Development ECO The Story of Development: The traditional notion of development; National Income and Per-capita Income. Growth of NI - critical appraisal of existing development indicators (PCI, IMR, SR and other income and health indicators) The need for health and educational development; Human Development Indicators (in simple and brief as a holistic measure of development.
Download CBSE Revision Notes for CBSE Class 10 Social Science Term 1 - ECO Sectors of the Indian Economy ECO Sectors of the Indian Economy: Sectors of Economic Activities; Historical change in sectors; Rising importance of tertiary sector; Employment Generation; Division of Sectors Organised and Unorganised; Protective measures for unorganised sector workers.
Download CBSE Revision Notes for CBSE Class 10 Social Science Term 2 - ECO Money and Credit ECO Money and Credit: Role of money in an economy: Historical origin; Formal and Informal financial institutions for Savings and Credit - General Introduction; Select one formal institution such as a nationalized commercial bank and a few informal institutions; Local money lenders, landlords, self help groups, chit funds and private finance companies.
Download CBSE Revision Notes for CBSE Class 10 Social Science Term 2 - ECO Globalisation ECO Globalisation: What is Globalisation (through some simple examples); How India is being globalised and why; Development Strategy prior to 1991. State Control of Industries : Textile goods as an example for elaboration; Economic Reforms 1991; Strategies adopted in Reform measures (easing of capital flows; migration, investment flows); Different perspectives on globalisation and its impact on different sectors; Political Impact of globalisation.
Download CBSE Revision Notes for CBSE Class 10 Social Science ECO Consumer Rights (Project only) ECO Consumer Awareness: How consumer is exploited (one or two simple case studies) factors causing exploitation of consumers; Rise of consumer awareness; how a consumer should be in a market; role of government in consumer protection.
Key Notes for CBSE Board Students for Class 10. Important topics of all subjects are given in these CBSE notes. These notes will provide you overview of the chapter and important points to remember. These are very useful summary notes with neatly explained examples for best revision of the book.
CBSE Class-10 Revision Notes and Key Points
Class-10 syllabus is divided into term-1 and term-2 so as the quick revision notes. The key points for both SA1 and SA2 are given under this download section. It includes notes for Mathematics, Science, Social Science and English. Revision notes comprises all important formulas and concepts from each and every chapter.
CBSE Class 10 Social Science
Political Science Chapter 1
1. With this chapter, we resume the tour of democracy that we started last year.
2. An intelligent sharing of power among a legislature, executive and judiciary is very important to the design of a democracy.
3. We start with two stories from Belgium and Sri Lanka.
4. Both these stories are about how democracies handle demands for power sharing.
Belgium and Sri Lanka:
1. Belgium is a small country in Europe.
2. It has borders with Netherlands, France and Germany.
3. 59% in the Flemish region speaks Dutch.
4. Another 40% people live in Wallonia region and speaks French.
5. Remaining 1% of the Belgians speak Germany.
6. In the capital city Brussels, 80% people speak French while 20% are Dutch – speaking.
7. The minority French – speaking community was relatively rich and powerful.
8. This was resented by the Dutch-speaking community who got the benefit of the economic development and education much later.
9. The tension between two communities was acuter in Brussels.
10. Like other nations in the south Asia region, Sri Lanka has a diverse population.
11. The Sinhala speaks are 74% and Tamil speakers are 18%
12. Among Tamils, there are two sub groups, Tamil natives of the country are called “Sri Lankan Tamils”; the rest whose forefathers came from India as a population workers during the colonial period, is called ‘Indian Tamils’.
Majoritarianism in Sri Lanka:
1. Sri Lankan emerged as an independent country in 1948.
2. The leaders of the Sinhala community sought to secure dominance over the government by virtue of their majority.
3. In 1956, an Act was passed to recognize Sinhala as the only official language, thus disregarding Tamil.
4. A new constitution stipulated that the state shall protect and foster Buddhism.
5. All these coming measures, coming one after the other, gradually increased the feeling of alienation among the Sri Lankan Tamils.
6. As a result, the relations between the Sinhala and Tamil communities strained over time.
7. The Sri Lankan Tamils launched parties and struggles.
8. But their demand for more autonomy to provinces populated by the Tamils was repeatedly denied.
9. The distrust between the two communities turned into widespread conflict. It soon turned into CIVIL WAR.
10. The civil war caused a terrible setback to the social, cultural and economic life of the country.
Accommodation in Belgium:
1. Belgium recognized the existence of regional differences and cultural diversities.
2. Between 1970 and 1993, they amended their constitution four times so as to work out an arrangement that would enable everyone to live together within the same country.
3. Here are some of the elements of the Belgian model:
a. Constitution prescribes that the number of Dutch and French-speaking ministers shall be equal in the central government.
b. Many powers of the central government have been given to states government of the two of the regions of the country.
c. Brussels has separated government in which both the communities have equal representation.
d. Apart from the central and state government, there is a third kind of government. This is community government.
4. In Belgium, the leaders have realized that the unity of the country is possible only by respecting the feelings and interests of different communities and regions.
5. Sri Lanka shows us a contrasting example. It shows us that if a majority community wants to force its dominance over others and refuses to share power, it can undermine the unity of the country.
Why is power sharing desirable?
1. Thus, two different sets of reasons can be given in favor of power sharing.
2. Firstly, power sharing is good because it helps to reduce the possibility of conflict between social groups.
3. There is a second, deeper reason why power sharing is good for democracy. Power sharing is very spirit of democracy. A democratic rule involves sharing power with those affected by its exercise, and who have to live with it effects.
4. Let us call the first set of reasons PRUDENTIAL and the second moral.
5. While prudential reasons stress that power sharing will bring out better outcomes, moral reasons emphasizes the very act of the power sharing as valuable.
Forms of power sharing:
1. The idea of power sharing has emerged in opposition to the notions of undivided political power.
2. For a long time, it was believed that all power of a government must reside in one person or group of a person located at one place.
3. One basic principle of power sharing is that people are the source of all political power.
4. In a good democratic government, due respect is given to diverse groups and views that exist in a society.
5. Everyone has a voice in the shaping of public politics.
6. Therefore, it follows that in a democracy political power should be distributed among as many citizens as possible.
Let us look at some of the most common arrangements that we have or will come across.
1. Power is shared among different organs of the government, such as the legislature, executive, and judiciary. Let us call this horizontal distribution of power because it allows different organs of the government placed at the same level to exercise different powers.
2. Power can be shared among governments at different levels – a general government for the entire country and governments at the provincial or regional level. The division of higher and lower levels of government is called the vertical division of power.
3. Power may also be shared among different social groups, such as the religious and linguistic groups. ‘Community government’ is a good example of this arrangement.
4. Power sharing arrangement can also be seen in the way political parties, pressure groups and movements control or influence those in power.
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