Online test Economics is a science that studies human behavior as a relationship between ends and scarce means which have alternative uses. Scarcity means shortage of goods and resources in relation to their demand.

Online test Collection of data - sources of data - primary and secondary; how basic data is collected, with concepts of Sampling; methods of collecting data; some important sources of secondary data: Census of India and National Sample Survey Organisation.

Online test classify the data for further statistical analysis- distinguish between quantitative and qualitative classification, prepare a frequency distribution table, know the technique of forming classes, be familiar with the method of tally marking, differentiate between univariate and bivariate frequency distributions.

Online test Presentation of Data: Tabular Presentation and Diagrammatic Presentation of Data: (i) Geometric forms (bar diagrams and pie diagrams), (ii) Frequency diagrams (histogram, polygon and ogive) and (iii) Arithmetic line graphs (time series graph).

Online test Measures of Central Tendency- Merits of Arithmetic mean, Demerits of Arithmetic mean, Merits of Median, Demerits of median, Merits of mode, Demerits of mode, Relation among mean, median and mode, Graphic representation of mode.

Online test Measures of Dispersion - absolute dispersion (range, quartile deviation, mean deviation and standard deviation); relative dispersion (co-efficient of range, co-efficient of quartile-deviation, co-efficient of mean deviation, co-efficient of variation); Lorenz Curve: Meaning, construction and its application.

Online test Correlation - meaning, scatter diagram; Measures of correlation - Karl Pearson's method (two variables ungrouped data) Spearman's rank correlation.

Online test Introduction to Index Numbers - meaning, types - wholesale price index, consumer price index and index of industrial production, uses of index numbers; Inflation and index numbers.

Online test Low level of economic development under the colonial rule- agricultural sector, industrial sector, foreign trade, demographic condition, occupational structure, infrastructure.

Online test Indian economy 1950-1990- the goals of five year plans, agriculture, industry and trade, trade policy: import substitution. Economic Planning: Means utilisation of country’s resources in different development activities in accordance with national priorities.

Online test Liberalisation, privatisation and globalisation : an appraisal, background, liberalisation, privatisation, globalisation, indian economy during reforms: an assessment.

Online test Poverty- who are the poor?, how are poor people identified?, the number of poor in india, what causes poverty?, policies and programmes towards poverty alleviation, poverty alleviation programmes —a critical assessment.

Online test Human capital formation in india- what is human capital?, sources of human capital, human capital and human development, state of human capital formation in india, education sector in india, future prospects.

Online test Rural development- what is rural development?, credit and marketing in rural areas, agricultural market system, diversification into productive activities, sustainable development and organic farming.

Online test Employment: growth, informalisation and other issues- workers and employment, participation of people in employment, self-employed and hired workers, employment in firms, factories and offices, growth and changing structure of employment, informalisation of indian workforce, unemployment, government and employment generation.

Online test Infrastructure, what is infrastructure?, relevance of infrastructure, the state of infrastructure in india, energy, health. Infrastructure refers to all such services and facilities, which are needed to provide different kinds of services in an economy and which are essential in raising the place of economic growth of a country. It contributes to economic development of a country both by raising the productivity of factors of production and improving the quality of life of its people.

Online test Environment and sustainable development, environment — definition and functions, state of india’s environment, sustainable development, strategies for sustainable development.

Online test Inflation: Demand Pull Inflation, Cost push inflation, Causes of Inflation, Ef fect of Inflation, Macro ­ On Economy, Policy measures to control inflation Monetary measures, Fiscal Measures, Physical or non monetary measures

Online test Comparative development experiences of india and its neighbours- developmental path — a snapshot view, demographic indicators, gross domestic product and sectors, indicators of human development, development strategies — an appraisal.

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