Download CBSE Revision Notes for CBSE Class 12 Economics Introduction to Economics (only 2018-19) Meaning of microeconomics and macroeconomics What is an economy? Central problems of an economy: what, how and for whom to produce; concepts of production possibility frontier and opportunity cost.
Download CBSE Revision Notes for CBSE Class 12 Economics Consumers Equilibrium and Demand (only 2018-19) Consumer's equilibrium - meaning of utility, marginal utility, law of diminishing marginal utility, conditions of consumer's equilibrium using marginal utility analysis. Indifference curve analysis of consumer's equilibrium-the consumer's budget (budget set and budget line), preferences of the consumer (indifference curve, indifference map) and conditions of consumer's equilibrium. Demand, market demand, determinants of demand, demand schedule, demand curve and its slope, movement along and shifts in the demand curve; price elasticity of demand - factors affecting price elasticity of demand; measurement of price elasticity of demand - (a) percentage change method and (b) geometric method (linear demand curve); relationship between price elasticity of demand and total expenditure.
Download CBSE Revision Notes for CBSE Class 12 Economics Producer Behaviour and Supply (only 2018-19) Production function –Short-Run and Long-Run Total Product, Average Product and Marginal Product. Returns to a Factor Cost: Short run costs - total cost, total fixed cost, total variable cost; Average cost; Average fixed cost, average variable cost and marginal cost-meaning and their relationships. Revenue - total, average and marginal revenue - meaning and their relationships. Producer's equilibrium-meaning and its conditions in terms of marginal revenue-marginal cost. Supply, market supply, determinants of supply, supply schedule, supply curve and its slope, movements along and shifts in supply curve, price elasticity of supply; measurement of price elasticity of supply - (a) percentage-change method and (b) geometric method.
Download CBSE Revision Notes for CBSE Class 12 Economics Forms of Market and Price Determination (only 2018-19) Perfect competition - Features; Determination of market equilibrium and effects of shifts in demand and supply. Other Market Forms - monopoly, monopolistic competition, oligopoly - their meaning and features. Simple Applications of Demand and Supply: Price ceiling, price floor.
Download CBSE Revision Notes for CBSE Class 12 Economics National Income and Related Aggregates Some basic concepts: consumption goods, capital goods, final goods, intermediate goods; stocks and flows; gross investment and depreciation. Circular flow of income; Methods of calculating National Income - Value Added or Product method, Expenditure method, Income method.
Download CBSE Revision Notes for CBSE Class 12 Economics Money and Banking Money - its meaning and functions. Supply of money - Currency held by the public and net demand deposits held by commercial banks. Money creation by the commercial banking system. Central bank and its functions (example of the Reserve Bank of India): Bank of issue, Govt. Bank, Banker's Bank, Controller of Credit through Bank Rate, CRR, SLR, Repo Rate and Reverse Repo Rate, Open Market Operations, Margin requirement.
Download CBSE Revision Notes for CBSE Class 12 Economics Determination of Income and Employment Ex Ante and Ex Post: Movement Along a Curve Versus Shift of a Curve, The Short Run Fixed Price Analysis of the Product Market- A Point on the Aggregate Demand Curve, Effects of an Autonomous Change on Equilibrium Demand in the Product Market, The Multiplier Mechanism
Download CBSE Revision Notes for CBSE Class 12 Economics Government Budget and the Economy Government budget - meaning, objectives and components. Classification of receipts - revenue receipts and capital receipts; classification of expenditure –revenue expenditure and capital expenditure. Measures of government deficit - revenue deficit, fiscal deficit, primary deficit their meaning.
Download CBSE Revision Notes for CBSE Class 12 Economics Balance of Payments The Balance of Payments: BoP Surplus and Deficit, The Foreign Exchange Market- Determination of the Exchange Rate, Flexible Exchange Rates, Fixed Exchange Rates, Managed Floating, Exchange Rate Management: The International Experience. The Determination of Income in an Open Economy- National Income Identity for an Open Economy, Equilibrium Output and the Trade Balance. Trade Deficits, Savings and Investment
Download CBSE Revision Notes for CBSE Class 12 Economics Indian Economy on the Eve of Independence (for 2019-20) Low level of economic development under the colonial rule- agricultural sector, industrial sector, foreign trade, demographic condition, occupational structure, infrastructure.
Download CBSE Revision Notes for CBSE Class 12 Economics Indian Economy 1950 -90 (for 2019-20) Indian economy 1950-1990- the goals of five year plans, agriculture, industry and trade, trade policy: import substitution. Economic Planning: Means utilisation of country’s resources in different development activities in accordance with national priorities.
Download CBSE Revision Notes for CBSE Class 12 Economics Economic Reforms Since 1991 (for 2019-20) Liberalisation, privatisation and globalisation : an appraisal, background, liberalisation, privatisation, globalisation, indian economy during reforms: an assessment.
Download CBSE Revision Notes for CBSE Class 12 Economics Poverty (for 2019-20) Poverty- who are the poor?, how are poor people identified?, the number of poor in india, what causes poverty?, policies and programmes towards poverty alleviation, poverty alleviation programmes —a critical assessment.
Download CBSE Revision Notes for CBSE Class 12 Economics Human Capital Formation in India (for 2019-20) Human capital formation in india- what is human capital?, sources of human capital, human capital and human development, state of human capital formation in india, education sector in india, future prospects.
Download CBSE Revision Notes for CBSE Class 12 Economics Rural Development (for 2019-20) Rural development- what is rural development?, credit and marketing in rural areas, agricultural market system, diversification into productive activities, sustainable development and organic farming.
Download CBSE Revision Notes for CBSE Class 12 Economics Employment Growth Informational and other Issues (for 2019-20) Employment: growth, informalisation and other issues- workers and employment, participation of people in employment, self-employed and hired workers, employment in firms, factories and offices, growth and changing structure of employment, informalisation of indian workforce, unemployment, government and employment generation.
Download CBSE Revision Notes for CBSE Class 12 Economics Infrastructure (for 2019-20) Infrastructure, what is infrastructure?, relevance of infrastructure, the state of infrastructure in india, energy, health. Infrastructure refers to all such services and facilities, which are needed to provide different kinds of services in an economy and which are essential in raising the place of economic growth of a country. It contributes to economic development of a country both by raising the productivity of factors of production and improving the quality of life of its people.
Download CBSE Revision Notes for CBSE Class 12 Economics Environment Sustainable Development (for 2019-20) Environment and sustainable development, environment — definition and functions, state of india’s environment, sustainable development, strategies for sustainable development.
Download CBSE Revision Notes for CBSE Class 12 Economics Inflation: Problem and Policies (for 2019-20) Inflation: Demand Pull Inflation, Cost push inflation, Causes of Inflation, Ef fect of Inflation, Macro On Economy, Policy measures to control inflation Monetary measures, Fiscal Measures, Physical or non monetary measures
Download CBSE Revision Notes for CBSE Class 12 Economics Development India with Neighbours (for 2019-20) Comparative development experiences of india and its neighbours- developmental path — a snapshot view, demographic indicators, gross domestic product and sectors, indicators of human development, development strategies — an appraisal.
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