Download CBSE Revision Notes for CBSE Class 07 Social Science Tracing Changes Through a Thousand Years Tracing Changes Through a Thousand Years: New and Old Terminologies, Historians and their Sources, New Social and Political Groups, Regions and Empires, Old and New Religions, Historical Periods.
Download CBSE Revision Notes for CBSE Class 07 Social Science New Kings and Kingdoms New Kings and Kingdoms: (a) An outline of political developments c. 700-1200 (b) A case study of the Cholas, including agrarian expansion in the Tamil region.
Download CBSE Revision Notes for CBSE Class 07 Social Science The Delhi Sultans The Delhi Sultans: (a) Outline the development of political institutions, and relationships amongst rulers. (b) Understand strategies of military control and resource mobilisation. (c) Illustrate how travellers’ accounts, court chronicles and historic buildings are used to write history.
Download CBSE Revision Notes for CBSE Class 07 Social Science The Mughal Empire The Mughal Empire: (a) Trace the political history of the 16th and 17th centuries. (b) Understand the impact of an imperial administration at the local and regional levels. (c) Illustrate how the Akbarnama and the Ain-i-Akbari are used to reconstruct history.
Download CBSE Revision Notes for CBSE Class 07 Social Science Rulers and Buildings Rulers and Buildings: (a) Convey a sense of the range of materials, skills and styles used to build: waterworks, places of worship, palaces and havelis, forts, gardens. (b) Understand the engineering and construction skills, artisanal organisation and resources required for building works. (c) Illustrate how contemporary documents, inscriptions, and the actual buildings can beused to reconstruct history.
Download CBSE Revision Notes for CBSE Class 07 Social Science Towns Traders and Crafts persons Towns Traders and Crafts persons: (a) Trace the origins and histories of towns, many of which survive today. (b) Demonstrate the differences between founded towns and those that grow as a result of trade. (c) Illustrate how travellers’ accounts, contemporary maps and official documents are used to reconstruct history.
Download CBSE Revision Notes for CBSE Class 07 Social Science Tribes Nomads and Settled Communities Tribes Nomads and Settled Communities: (a) Convey an idea of long-term social change and movements of people in the subcontinent. (b) Understand political developments in specific regions. (c) Illustrate how anthropological studies, inscriptions and chronicles are used to write history.
Download CBSE Revision Notes for CBSE Class 07 Social Science Devotional Paths to the Divine Devotional Paths to the Divine: (a) Indicate the major religious ideas and practices that began during this period. (b) Understand how Kabir challenged formal religions. (c) Illustrate how traditions preserved in texts and oral traditions are used to reconstruct history.
Download CBSE Revision Notes for CBSE Class 07 Social Science The Making of Regional Cultures The Making of Regional Cultures: (a) Provide a sense of the development of regional cultural forms, including ‘classical’ forms of dance and music. (b) Illustrate how texts in a regional language can be used to reconstruct history.
Download CBSE Revision Notes for CBSE Class 07 Social Science Eighteenth Century Political Formations Eighteenth Century Political Formations: (a) Delineate developments related to the Sikhs, Rajputs, Marathas, later Mughals, Nawabs of Awadh and Bengal, and Nizam of Hyderabad. (b) Understand how the Marathas expanded their area of control. (c) Illustrate how travellers’ accounts and state archives can be used to reconstruct history.
Download CBSE Revision Notes for CBSE Class 07 Social Science Environment Environment: Environment in its totality: natural and human environment. To understand the environment in its totality including various components both natural and human.
Download CBSE Revision Notes for CBSE Class 07 Social Science Inside our Earth Inside our Earth: To explain the components of natural environment; To appreciate the interdependence of these components and their importance in our life; To appreciate and develop sensitivity towards environments
Download CBSE Revision Notes for CBSE Class 07 Social Science Our Changing Earth Our Changing Earth: Natural Environment: land – interior of the earth, rocks and minerals; earth movements and major land forms. (One case study related with earthquake to be introduced)
Download CBSE Revision Notes for CBSE Class 07 Social Science Air Air: composition, structure of the atmosphere, elements of weather and climate – temperature, pressure, moisture and wind. (One case study related with cyclones to be introduced)
Download CBSE Revision Notes for CBSE Class 07 Social Science Water Water: fresh and saline, distribution of major water bodies, ocean waters and their circulation. (One case study related with tsunami to be introduced)
Download CBSE Revision Notes for CBSE Class 07 Social Science Natural Vegetation and Wildlife Natural Vegetation and Wildlife online test for class 07 Social Science. These online MCQ tests includes all main concepts of the chapter in CBSE class 07 Social Science. It is very useful for testing the command over the topic and equally useful for various Olympiads.
Download CBSE Revision Notes for CBSE Class 07 Social Science Human Environment Settlement Transport and Communication Human Environment Settlement Transport and Communication: To explain the relationship between natural environment and human habitation; To appreciate the need of transport and communication for development of the community; To be familiar with the new developments making today’s world a global society
Download CBSE Revision Notes for CBSE Class 07 Social Science Human Environment Interactions the Tropical and the Subtropical Region Human Environment Interactions the Tropical and the Subtropical Region: To understand the complex inter relationship of human and natural environment; To compare life in one’s own surrounding with life of other environmental settings; To appreciate the cultural differences existing in the world which is an outcome of interaction, between human beings and their environment.
Download CBSE Revision Notes for CBSE Class 07 Social Science Life in the Deserts Life in the Deserts: Environment Interaction: Case Studies – life in desert regions – Sahara and Ladakh. To compare life in one’s own surrounding with life of other environmental settings
Download CBSE Revision Notes for CBSE Class 07 Social Science On Equality Equality in Indian Democracy (On Equality and Struggles for Equality): understand the importance of the idea of equality and dignity in democracy. Formal Equality. Decision Making mechanisms. Accommodation of differences. Enhancing human dignity.
Download CBSE Revision Notes for CBSE Class 07 Social Science Role of the Government in Health State Government (Role of the Government in Health and How the State Government Works): Main functionaries-broad outline of the role of the Chief minister and the council of ministers. The nature of the role played by the government – regarding resources and services. Factors involved in distribution of resources/services. Access of localities and communities to resources/services.
Download CBSE Revision Notes for CBSE Class 07 Social Science Growing up as Boys and Girls Gender (Growing up as Boys and Girls and Women Change the World): understand that gender is a social construct and not determined by biological difference, learn to interrogate gender constructions in different social and economic contexts, to link everyday practices with the creation of inequality and question it.
Download CBSE Revision Notes for CBSE Class 07 Social Science Understanding Media Media and Advertising (Understanding Media and Understanding Advertising): understand the role of the media in facilitating interaction between the government and citizens, gain a sense that government is accountable to its citizens, understand the link between information and power, gain a critical sense of the impact of media on people’s lives and choices, appreciate the significance of people’s movements in gaining this right.
Download CBSE Revision Notes for CBSE Class 07 Social Science Market Around Us Markets (Markets Around Us and A Shirt in the Market): understand markets and their relation to everyday life, understand markets and their function to link scattered producers and consumers, gain a sense of inequity in market operations.
CBSE revision notes for class 7 Social Science NCERT chapter wise notes of 7th Social Science CBSE key points and chapter summary for 7 Social Science all chapters in PDF format for free download. CBSE short key notes and chapter notes for revision in exams. CBSE short notes of 7th class Social Science. Summary of the chapter for class 7 Social Science are available in PDF format for free download. These NCERT notes are very helpful for CBSE exam. CBSE recommends NCERT books and most of the questions in CBSE exam are asked from NCERT text books. These notes are based on latest NCERT syllabus and designed as per the new curriculum issued by CBSE for this session. Class 7 Social Science chapter wise NCERT note for Social Science part and Social Science for all the chapters can be downloaded from website and myCBSEguide mobile app for free.
Here is the list of topics covered under each chapter of class 7 Social Science NCERT text book.
Key Notes for CBSE Board Students for Class 07 Important topics of all subjects are given in these CBSE notes. These notes will provide you overview of the chapter and important points to remember. These are very useful summary notes with neatly explained examples for best revision of the book.
CBSE notes for class 7 Maths, Science and Social Science with option to download in PDF format. The notes includes all the concepts given in text book and covers the whole syllabus as prescribed by CBSE, New Delhi. CBSE key notes are free to download.
CBSE Class 07 Social Science
Chapter - 1 History
Tracing Changes Through a Thousand Years
New and Old Terminologies:
(i) Historical records exist in a variety of languages which have changed considerably over the years. The difference is not just with regard to grammar and vocabulary; the meanings of words also change over time.
(ii) The term Hindustan was coined by Minhaj-i-Siraj, a chronicler who wrote in Persian for areas around Punjab, Haryana, and the lands between Ganga and Yamuna. He used the term in a political sense for lands that were a part of the dominions of the Delhi Sultan. The areas included shifted with the extent of the Sultanate but the term never included south India.
(iii) In the early sixteenth century, Babur used Hindustan to describe the geography, the fauna and the culture of the inhabitants of the subcontinent. This was somewhat similar to the way the fourteenth-century poet Amir Khusrau used the word “Hind”.
(iv) In Hindi, the term ‘pardesi’ was used to describe an alien. In Persian, it was called ‘ajnabi’.
(v) Historians today have to be careful about the terms they use because they meant different things in the past. A city-dweller, therefore, might have regarded a forest-dweller as a “foreigner”, but two peasants living in the same village were not foreigners to each other, even though they may have had different religious or caste backgrounds.
Historians and their Sources:
(i) Historians use different types of sources to learn about the past depending upon the period of their study and the nature of their investigation.
(ii) Roughly from 700 to 1750 AD, historians rely on coins, inscriptions, architecture and textual records for information. But there is also considerable discontinuity. The number and variety of textual records increased dramatically during this period. They slowly displaced other types of available information.
(iii) Through this period, paper gradually became cheaper and more widely available. People used it to write holy texts, chronicles of rulers, letters and teachings of saints, petitions and judicial records, and for registers of accounts and taxes.
(iv) Manuscripts were collected by wealthy people, rulers, monasteries and temples. They
were placed in libraries and archives. These manuscripts and documents provide a lot of detailed information to historians but they are also difficult to use.
(v) There was no printing press in those days so scribes copied manuscripts by hand. As scribes copied manuscripts, they also introduced small changes - a word here, a sentence there.
(vi) These small differences grew over centuries of copying until manuscripts of the same text became substantially different from one another. We are totally dependent upon the copies made by later scribes. As a result, historians have to read different manuscript versions of the same text to guess what the author had originally written.
(vii) On occasion, authors revised their chronicles at different times. For example, the fourteenth-century chronicler Ziyauddin Barani wrote his chronicle first in 1356 and another version two years later. The two differ from each other but historians did not know about the existence of the first version until the 1960s.
New Social and Political Groups:
(i) The study of the thousand years between 700 and 1750 is a huge challenge to historians largely because of the scale and variety of developments that occurred over the period.
(ii) Some of the developments were the introduction of the Persian wheel in irrigation, the spinning wheel in weaving, and firearms in combat. New foods and beverages arrived in the subcontinent - potatoes, corn, chillies, tea and coffee.
(iii) It was a period of great mobility. Groups of people travelled long distances in search of opportunity. The subcontinent held immense wealth and the possibilities for people to carve a fortune.
(iv) One such group of people was that of the "Rajputs", name derived from Rajaputra, the son of a ruler. Other groups of warriors were Marathas, Sikhs, Jats, Ahoms and Kayasthas (a caste of scribes and secretaries).
(v) Between the eighth and fourteenth centuries, the term was applied more generally to a group of warriors who claimed Kshatriya caste status. The term included not just rulers and chieftains but also soldiers and commanders who served in the armies of different monarchs all over the subcontinent.
(vi) A chivalric code of conduct - extreme valour and a great sense of loyalty - were the qualities attributed to Rajputs by their poets and bards.
(vii) Throughout this period, there was a gradual clearing of forests and the extension of agriculture and changes in their habitat forced many forest-dwellers to migrate. Others started tilling the land and became peasants.
(viii) These new peasant groups gradually began to be influenced by regional markets, chieftains, priests, monasteries and temples. They became part of large, complex societies, and were required to pay taxes and offer goods and services to local lords.
(ix) Some peasants possessed more productive land, others also kept cattle, and some combined artisanal work with agricultural activity during the lean season.
(x) Furthermore, as society became more differentiated, people were grouped into jatis or sub-castes and ranked on the basis of their backgrounds and their occupations. Ranks were not fixed permanently, and varied according to the power, influence and resources controlled by members of the jati. The status of the same jati could vary from area to area.
(xi) Jatis framed their own rules and regulations to manage the conduct of their members. These regulations were enforced by an assembly of elders, described in some areas as the jati panchayat.
(xii) But jatis were also required to follow the rules of their villages. Several villages were governed by a chieftain.
Region and Empire:
(i) Large states like those of the Cholas, Tughluqs, or Mughals encompassed many regions.
(ii) A Sanskrit prashsti that praises Delhi Sultan Balban tells that he was ruler of a vast empire that stretched from Bengal in the east to Ghazni in Afghanistan in the west and included all of the South India (Dravida).
(iii) People of different regions - Gauda, Andhra, Kerala, Karnataka, Maharashtra and
Gujarat - apparently fled before his armies.
(iv) There were considerable conflicts between various states. Occasionally, dynasties like the Cholas, Khaljis, Tughluqs and Mughals were able to build an empire that was pan-regional - spanning diverse regions. Not all these empires were equally stable or successful.
(v) When the Mughal Empire declined in the eighteenth century, it led to the re-emergence of regional states. But years of imperial, pan-regional rule had altered the character of the regions.
(vi) Across most of the subcontinent the regions were left with the legacies of the big and small states that had ruled over them. This was apparent in the emergence of many distinct
and shared traditions: in the realms of governance, the management of the economy, elite cultures, and language.
Old and New Religions:
(i) People’s belief in the divine was sometimes deeply personal, but more usually it was collective. Collective belief in a supernatural agency - religion - was often closely connected with the social and economic organisation of local communities.
(ii) Some of the changes in Hinduism were- the worship of new deities, the construction of temples by royalty and the growing importance of Brahmanas, the priests, as dominant groups in society.
(iii) Their knowledge of Sanskrit texts earned the Brahmanas a lot of respect in society. Their dominant position was consolidated by the support of their patrons - new rulers searching for prestige.
(iv) This period saw the emergence of the idea of bhakti - of a loving, personal deity that devotees could reach without the aid of priests or elaborate rituals.
(v) Merchants and migrants first brought the teachings of the holy Quran to India in the seventh century. Muslims regard the Quran as their holy book and accept the sovereignty of the one God, Allah, whose love, mercy and bounty embrace all those who believe in Him, without regard to social background.
(vi) Many rulers were patrons of Islam and the ulama - learned theologians and jurists. And like Hinduism, Islam was interpreted in a variety of ways by its followers.
Thinking about Time and Historical Periods:
(i) Time reflects changes in social and economic organisation, in the persistence and transformation of ideas and beliefs. The study of time is made somewhat easier by dividing the past into large segments - periods - that possess shared characteristics.
(ii) In the middle of the nineteenth century, the British historians divided the history of India into three periods: Hindu, Muslim and British.
(iii) This division was based on the idea that the religion of rulers was the only important historical change, and that there were no other significant developments - in the economy, society or culture. Such a division also ignored the rich diversity of the subcontinent.
(iv) Few historians follow this periodization today. Most look to economic and social factors to characterise the major elements of different moments of the past.
(v) During the medieval period, the societies of the subcontinent were transformed often and economies in several regions reached a level of prosperity that attracted the interest of European trading companies.
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