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Yogita Ingle 2 days, 16 hours ago

  • The Caste system in India is mainly based on the division of labour. It is a hierarchical system which divides the society into four main castes.
  • The Brahmins or the priests occupy the top most position in the Indian caste system. They conduct prayers, yajnas and offer sacrifices.
  • The second position in the society is occupied by the Kshatriyas who are the warriors. Their main responsibility is to protect the society and nation.
  • The third position in the Indian society is occupied by the farmers, merchants and traders.
  • The shudras or the untouchables occupy the fourth and the lowest position in the caste system. They do all the menial work such as cleaning toilets, sewers etc. This section fo the society has been exploited since the ancient times. They were deprived of education and a good quality life.
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Yogita Ingle 3 days, 22 hours ago

Conservation Laws: A conservation law is a hypothesis based on observation and experiments which cannot be proved. These can be verified via experiments.

Law of conservation of Energy: According to the general Law of conservation of energy, the energies remain constant over time and
convert from one form to another.

The law of conservation of energy applies to the whole universe and it is believed that the total energy of the universe remains unchanged.

Under identical conditions, the nature produces symmetric results at different time.

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Meghna Thapar 1 week ago

The study of sociology helps the individual to understand human society and how social system work. A comparative study of human societies enables us to understand that people in different societies have many different solutions to the universal human problems of making a living. Studying sociology provides a better understanding of the following: Reasons for social differences, including differences in social behavior. Reasons for the differentials in group opportunities and outcomes. The relevance of social hierarchies and social power in everyday life.

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Yogita Ingle 1 week ago

Characteristics of a Family

  1. A mating relationship: A family comes into existence when a man and a woman establish a mating relation between them.
  2. A form of marriage: A family requires a home, a householder, for its living. Without a dwelling place the task of child bearing and child rearing cannot be adequately performed.
  3. A system of nomenclature: Every family is known by a name and has its own system of reckoning descent. Descent may be reckoned through the male line or through the female line. Usually the wife goes and joins her husband’s family in a patriarchal system and vice-versa in a matriarchal system.
  4. An economic provision: Every family needs an economic provision to satisfy the economic needs. The head of the family carries on a certain profession and earns money to maintain the family.
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Meghna Thapar 1 week ago

Strong, solid family relationships don’t just happen; there are critical elements that must be there for these family ties to develop. When a relationship is built on a firm foundation it can withstand the hiccups of daily life and the unexpected moments of chaos. Mutual respect, time for fun, constant encouragement and communicated love are the four pillars of any strong relationship.

1. Mutual Respect. A lack of respect creates problems in any relationship. When dealing with children adults need to remind themselves that respect is earned. Nagging, yelling, hitting, talking down, doing things for kids that they can do for themselves, following double standards are all disrespectful. (Ask yourself: do you require your children to knock before entering your bedroom but feel free to barge into theirs?) To establish mutual respect, we must be willing to demonstrate respect for our children. A great way to start is to minimize your negative talk. Speak with your children when the atmosphere is friendly and upbeat.

2. Time for Fun. Quality time is another key ingredient to building a healthy, happy relationship. It is not the quantity but the quality of time you spend with the members of your family that is important. One hour of quality time is much more valuable than five hours of conflict. Spend time daily with each member of your family doing something together that you both enjoy – invest in the relationship! I know you are busy, but your children won’t live with you forever! Savor the time you have with them NOW! In addition to individual time I strongly recommend that you schedule family fun each week, this should be a time to laugh, enjoy each other’s company and build memories that will comfort you for years to come.

3. Constant Encouragement. Believe in your family members so they can believe in themselves. Your children will especially benefit from your frequent encouragement. A cooperative relationship depends on how children feel about themselves and how they feel about you. So instead of focusing on your children’s mistakes, point out what you like and appreciate about them. Specifically describe what behaviors you want repeated, give them a recipe for success!

4. Communicated love. Clearly and regularly communicate to your family the love you have for them. This will increase your children’s sense of security and strengthen any marriage! Let your family feel and hear your love. A gentle pat on the back, hugs, kisses, and tousling hair are extremely important gestures. Your attitude also expresses your love. When you demonstrate mutual respect and allow your children to develop responsibility and independence and that is the deepest expression of love.

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Yogita Ingle 1 week ago

1. Marriage leads to the formation of family.The family is a universal institution and has existed throughout the history of society.

2. As far as defination of a family is concerned we can say that, “Family, basically, is made up to individuals having Kinship relationship among themselves."

3. The smallest family consists of the husband and wife without children. Such a family is also called a nuclear family.

4. A man with his children or a woman with her can also constitute a family. This is called a single-parent family.

5. A family may even consist of persons of few more generations living together and other relatives forming an extended family. Such an arrangement is also known by the name household.

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Yogita Ingle 1 week, 2 days ago

As opposed to commonsensical knowledge, sociology like any other science has its own body of concepts and methods of data collection.

As a social science, sociology does need to have certain agreed upon meanings of social realities and processes in studying. Each subject is required to have a standard vocabulary, terminology, language and concepts through which professionals can converse and maintain the different identity of its subject.
It becomes all the more important to discuss sociological terms so as to distinguish what they mean from commonsensical usage which may have varied meanings and connotations.

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Yogita Ingle 1 week, 2 days ago

  • Formal social control includes written, formalized and codified statements in laws, rules, and regulations. Whereas informal control does not contain any written rules.
  • Formal control agencies are authorized ones created by government and informal control agencies are created by social networks and organizations but not by government.
  • Formal control is much effective and stronger than informal social control. Any situations which cannot be handled by informal control are subjected to formal one.
  • Formal control is effective for even large groups of population but informal control is effective only for a small group of people.
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Yogita Ingle 1 week, 2 days ago

Society is a harmonious organisation of humans. Individuals are expected to discharge their roles and perform functions accordingly. In order to exist and progress society has to exercise a certain control over its members. Such controls are termed as social control. According to L.Bernard, “Social control is a process by which stimuli are brought to bear effectively upon some person or group of persons thus producing responses that function in adjustment to the group.”

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Yogita Ingle 1 week, 2 days ago

 

Differentiation between Ascribed and Achieved Status :

1. Status may be ascribed or achieved. Ascribed status is assigned to an individual either on the basis of his birth and biological characteristics such as ***, age and race or the status of his/her parents.

2. Ascribed status is assigned to an individual by the social system which remain unchangeable.

3. Example : For instance, an individual born in a royal family becomes prince or princess.

4. Similarly in our country Caste plays a vital role in determining the status of a person which is an example of ascribed status.

5. Achieved Status is a position which a person obtains through personal (his or hers, efforts.

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Yogita Ingle 1 week, 2 days ago

Social stratification

  • Social stratification refers to the existence of structured inequalities between groups in society, in terms of their access to material or symbolic rewards.
  • While all societies involve some forms of social stratification, modern societies are often marked by wide differences in wealth and power.
  • The most evident forms of stratification in modern societies involve class divisions, others like race and caste
  • The concept of stratification, then, refers to the idea that society is divided into a patterned structure of unequal groups, and usually implies that this structure tends to persist across generations.
  • Different bases of social stratification like gender or class constrain existing social processes and also to opportunities and resources available to individuals or groups to compete.
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Yogita Ingle 1 week, 2 days ago

For a caste to be dominant, it should own a sizeable amount of the arable land locally available, have strength of numbers and occupy a high place in the local hierarchy. Dominant castes have localised existance and operate as reference models for Sanskritising castes.

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Yogita Ingle 1 week, 2 days ago

Socialisation is a process by which a person learns to behave in an acceptable manner within the society or group. It refers to the way by which the values and norms of the society or group become a part of the individual’s own way of thinking and feeling. This process is referred to as socialisation and through this the individual becomes a part of the given culture. For society to operate smoothly, individuals must be socialised into institutionalised patterns of behaviour, values and norms.

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Yogita Ingle 1 week, 2 days ago

Reference Group: It is that group to which we do not belong but we aspire to be like them and therefore we try to emulate their lifestyles. For example, for many Indian youths, Americans or Bollywood stars are a reference group.

Peer Group: A type of primary group composed of individuals who are either of similar age or who share a common profession. Peer groups have a very strong influence on the life of an individual.

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Yogita Ingle 1 week, 2 days ago

In Group Out Group
(i) The group with which an individual identifies himself/herself, has a sense of belonging with. (i) A group to which an individual feels individual has no sense of belonging/ identification.
(ii) It is a “we-group”. (ii) It is a “they group”.
(iii) There is a sense of attachment members of In-group. (iii) There is a sense of indifference and at times may be even hostility towards members of out-group
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Yogita Ingle 1 week, 2 days ago

Primary Group Secondary Group
(i) Primary group is small group of people. (i) Secondary group is relatively large in size.
(ii) It is characterized by intimate, face face, and emotional relationships. (ii) It is marked by formal, and impersonal relationships
(iii)  For example, family and peer group (iii) For example, Club, Residents Welfare Association
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Yogita Ingle 1 week, 2 days ago

A social group can be said to have at least the following characteristics:

  1. persistent interaction to provide continuity;
  2. a stable pattern of these inter- actions;
  3. a sense of belonging to identify with other members, i.e. each individual is conscious of the group itself and its own set of rules, rituals and symbols;
  4. Shared interest
  5. acceptance of common norms and values
  6. a definable structure
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Yogita Ingle 1 week, 2 days ago

Quasi group:

  • A quasi group is a combination or aggregate that lacks organisation or structure because they are not really a group.
  • The members of such groups are not aware of the existence of other groups.
  • Social classes, status groups, age and gender groups are the example of quasi group.

Social group:

  • A social group is a kind of people who interact with each other and share similar characteristics.
  • Collectively they are driven by a common purpose and have a definite sense of unity.
  • For example, if you are a member of a family or team or group, where we need to interact with each other so they are considered as a social group.
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Gaurav Seth 1 week, 3 days ago

Sociology deals with modern society. It is a new science which came into existence in recent times. Latest concepts are included in sociology which keeps the subject up to date.
Sociology is the science that deals with social groups, their mode of organisation, the processes that tend to maintain or change these forms of organisation, and the relations between groups. Therefore, it is a progressive science.

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Gaurav Seth 1 week, 3 days ago

  • A society is a group of people who share a common culture, occupy a territorial area and are bound to each other by a common history.
  • Societies may be simple, may be complex. It is natural to human beings. We all are social beings. We cannot survive without society. We human beings cannot attain our goals alone, we want society. The society provides us security, relationship, identity and sense of belonging ness.
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Gaurav Seth 1 week, 3 days ago

Relationship between Sociology and Political Science.

 

(i) Areas of Studies : (a) Political Science studies political institutions such as state, government, political parties, executive, legislative and judicial institutions. Political Science also studies the behaviour of the people in power. In this way, we can say that the concept of power is very significant.

(b) Political Science can be defined as a study of Power. Power is the ability of a person or group to control and influence the behaviour of others despte their resistance.

(c) 'Authority' refers to power vested in given persons through institutions such as office, rank, elections, etc.

(d) Sociology also studies power in terms of its social contexts. In other words, the process which enable a man or a group to wield power and exercise dominance in society represent or constitute power - are the focal point of study in sociology.

(e) In a way we can say that the stratification of society in terms of power by different groups, castes, classes and tribal groups becomes the basis of sociological analysis.

(ii) The interface of Political Science and Sociology can be termed as political sociology. Political sociology, in fact, acts as a bridge between political science and sociology.

(iii) Sociology is devoted to the study of social aspects of society, whereas political science restricts itself mainly to the study of power as embodied in formal organisations.

(iv) Sociology emphasizes upon the inter relations between institutions such as state, government, political parties, whereas political science focuses its attention of the governmental processes.

(v) Nevertheless, political sociology has for long shared with political science, many of the common interests and a very similar style.

(vi) If we look at the relationship between political science and sociology in India, Caste has been studied as a resource/infrastructure to have access to power at the time of elections. How caste becomes an interest group and an instrument of mobilization ? This has brought sociology close to Political Science in particular.

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Gaurav Seth 1 week, 3 days ago

  1. Sociology studies the different parts of society as a whole whereas Economics studies only the economic part of society.
  2. The view point of sociology is extensive while economics is a special science related to economic aspect of human being.
  3. The approach of sociology to study relationships is collectivistic whereas the perspective of economics is individualistic.
  4. Sociology uses quantitative and numeral methods whereas economics derives facts using inductive and deductive methods.
  5. Economic phenomena is constantly determined by all sort of social needs and activities and they are constantly redetermining, creating, shaping and transforming social need and activity of every kind.
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Gaurav Seth 1 week, 3 days ago

Sociology tries to understand the social life of particular times only on the basis of historical influences whereas History is a compilation of the events of the past.

  • History focuses on the study of the past, whereas Sociology shows interest in contemporary scene or recent past.
  • History emphasises on the differences in the similar events but Sociology deals with the similarities in different events.
  • Sociology takes help of history to understand modem society because sociologists can get social facts of ancient society from history.
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Gaurav Seth 1 week, 3 days ago

  • Society is the web of social relationship.
  • Sociology is a system of usage and procedures of authority and mutual aid of many groupings and division of control of human behaviour and of liberties. (Maciver and Page).
  • This definition of sociology emphasies that main features of society are usage, procedure, authority, mutual aid, group and division and liberties.
  • Usage means accepted ways (norms) of the society.
  • Procedure refers to social institutions like family or marriage which is important for social network.
  • Authority means a system which controls the units of society (Individual) or maintains social web.
  • Groups and division mean groups and subgroups in which the individual interacts and learn social norms.
  • Control of human behaviour refers to social control and freedom to the individuals in the form of written or unwritten norms which are important for smooth functioning of social network.
  • Above mentioned elements are different aspects of society and web of social relationship, according to Maciver and Page.
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Gaurav Seth 1 week, 3 days ago

According to Maciver and Page, ‘Society is a web of social relationships’.
It is the union itself, the organisation, the sum of formal relations in which associating individuals are bound together.
Society is not simply a group of people, it is a system of relationship that exists between the individual of the group.

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