Posted by Nitin Tiwari 1 month, 1 week ago
Extraction of Less Reactive Metals:
The less reactive metals are extracted by the reduction of their oxides by heat alone.
Example: Mercury (II) sulphide ore is roasted in air when mercury (II) oxide is formed. When this mercury (II) oxide is heated to about 300° C, it decomposes to form mercury metal.
Extraction of Moderately Reactive Metals:
The moderately reactive metals in the middle of the reactivity series are extracted by the reduction of their oxides with carbon, aluminium, sodium or calcium.
It is easier to obtain metals from their oxides (by reduction) than from carbonates or sulphides. So, before reduction can be done, the ore is converted into a metal oxide. The concentrated ores can be converted into metal oxides by the process of calcination or roasting.
Calcination is the process in which a carbonate ore is heated strongly in the absence of air to convert it into a metal oxide.
For example: When zinc carbonate is heated strongly in the absence of air, it decomposes to form zinc oxide and carbon dioxide. Roasting is the process in which a sulphide ore is strongly heated in the presence of air to convert it into a metal oxide.
Extracting Metals towards the Top of the Activity Series:
Metals high up in the reactivity series are very reactive. These metals have a strong affinity for oxygen. So, oxides of sodium, magnesium, calcium and aluminium cannot be reduced by carbon.
These metals are obtained by electrolytic reduction.
Sodium, magnesium and calcium are obtained by the electrolysis of their molten chlorides.
Example: Sodium metal is extracted by the electrolytic reduction of molten sodium chloride. When electric current is passed through molten sodium chloride, it decomposes to form sodium metal and chlorine gas.
Subscribe complete study pack and get unlimited access to selected subjects. Effective cost is only ₹ 12.5/- per subject per month. Based on the latest CBSE & NCERT syllabus.
Create papers in minutes
Print with your name & Logo
Download as PDF
3 Lakhs+ Questions
Based on CBSE Blueprint
Best fit for Schools & Tutors
No software required, no contract to sign. Simply apply as teacher, take eligibility test and start working with us. Required desktop or laptop with internet connection