From Trade To Territory Class 8 Notes History

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8 History notes Chapter 2 From Trade to Territory

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CBSE Class 8 Chapter 2 History From Trade to Territory Revision Notes

Aurangzeb was the last powerful Mughal ruler. After the death of Aurangzeb, the later rulers proved to be inefficient and foreign powers got opportunity to establish their rule in India.

East India Company comes East:

  1. In 1600 royal charter granted to East India Company granting the sole right to trade with the East.
  2. East India Company bought goods at a cheap price and sold them at higher price in Europe.
  3. Cotton and silk produced in India had a big market in Europe.
  4. Pepper, cloves, cardamom, and cinnamon were in great demand.
  5. East India company and its officials accumulated wealth by the trade of India and caught attention of other European powers.
  6. English east India company had to compete with other europian companies such as Franch, Dutch, and Portugese.
  7. Because of the powerful naval force, British won over other European powers and became the champion of struggle of monotony of trade.

East India Company begins Trade in Bengal:

  1. In 1651, the first English factory was set up on the banks of river Hugli and first English factory was opened up at Surat in 1608.
  2. Aurangzeb issued a farman granting the company the right to trade duty-free.
  3. The company tried to press for more concessions and manipulate existing privileges.
  4. For trading purpose, the passes were issued to company officials but they misused these passes for private trade and accumulate wealth on the name of company.
  5. Soon because of private trade company suffered and went into loses. To cure this anamoly British government made strict rules.

How did Trade Lead to Battles:

  1. After the death of Aurangzeb, the Bengal Nawabs asserted their power and autonomy.
  2. The Nawabs of Bengal refused to grant the company concessions as it was making the revenue from Bengal trade less profitable.
  3. The British wanted the duties to be abolished but Bengal nawabs refused.
  4. British official knew the condition of administration in Bengal and tried their autonomy by use of force.

The Battle of Plassey:

  1. As a result of denial of trading rights, on 23rd June 1757, Battle of Plassey was fought and it was the first major victory of English in India.
  2. Alivardi Khan died in 1756 and Sirajuddaulah became the Nawab of Bengal.
  3. In 1757, Robert Clive led the Company’s army against Sirajuddaulah at Plassey.
  4. Main reason for defeat of the Nawab was that the forces led by Mir Jafar, one of Sirajuddaulah’s commanders, betrayed sirajuddaula and never fought the battle.
  5. Mir Jafar was promised by Clive to be made Nawab after crushing Sirajuddaulah.
  6. As par the deal Mir Jafar became the Nawab of Bengal after the defeat and death of Sirajuddaula. But he was the nominal head of Bengal and actual power remained in the hands of British.

The Battle of Buxar:

  1. After the defeat at Plassey, Sirajuddaulah was assassinated and Mir Jafar was made the Nawab.
  2. Mir Jafar was just a puppet in the hands of Britishers.
  3. In 1764, the battle of Buxar was fought between Britishers and Mir Qasim, when  Mir Qasim denied the privilages given to Britishers.
  4. Mir Qasim abolished the trade duty for everyone and transfered his capital from Murshidabad to Mungair. But this was against the interest of British and they declared war.
  5. In this battle Mir  Qasim, the Nawab of Bengal; Shujauddaula, the Nawab of Awadh and Shah Alam the Mughal King fought against British and British forces were led by Hector Munro.
  6. In this battle British become victorious and they decided to control the territory by there own.
  7. In 1765, the Mughal emperor appointed the company as the Diwan of the provinces of Bengal and they also got the Diwani rights of Bihar and Odisha.

Company Officials become ‘Nabobs’:

  1. In 1764, Robert Clive was appointed Governor of Bengal.
  2. ‘Nabobs’-an anglicized version of the Indian word Nawab as British were leading a levish life similar to nawabs and everyone was on the mercy of British.

Company Rule Expands:

  1. The process of annexation of Indian states by the East India Company from 1757 to 1857 brought forth some key aspects like the company rarely launched a direct military attack on as unknown territory.
  2. After battle of Buxar, the company appointed residents in Indian states.
  3. The company forced the states into a ‘subsidiary alliance’ and the king had to put an army of British.
  4. In the case of non payment to army the nawab or the  king had to give some part of its territory.
  5. The Nawab of Awadh and the Nizam of Hyderabad were forced to cede territories and accept the subsidiary alliances.

Tipu Sultan-‘The Tiger of Mysore’:

  1. Sultan was the son of Haidar Ali, ruler of Mysore.
  2. Tipu Sultan ruled Mysore from 1782 to 1799.
  3. Tipu  Sultan took the help of French to modernise his army and sent foreign delegates to gether the foreign help against British.
  4. Four wars were fought between Britishers and Mysore and were known as the Anglo-Mysore wars(1767-1769, 1780-84, 1790-92 and 1799).
  5. In 1799, the Britishers won the battle of Seringapatam against Mysore.
  6. Tipu Sultan was killed defending his capital Seringapatam.

Anglo – Maratha wars:

  1. After the defeat of Maratha in battle of Panipat in 1761, they get divided in various small dynastied such as Sindhia, Holkars, Gaikwad and Bonsle.
  2. Three wars were fought between Marathas and British in 1782,1803-05 and 1817-19. The third war was the decisive war and after this peshwa was deposed and the sent to the Northern India on a pension.
  3. Now the company had control over the south of vindhiyas..

Claim to paramountcy:

  1. As British were proving themselves as the best power across the India, this enhanced their desire to rule whole territories and they started direct conquest under lord Hastings (1813-23).
  2. British also wanted to sercure North West front of their empire in India. For this they fought wars with Afganistan and Punjab and finally won  over its territories in 1843 and 1849 respectively.

Doctrine of Lapse:

  1. Under the reign of Lord Dalhousie (1848-56), they adopted the policy of Lapse .
  2. According to this policy, the rulers who does not have any legal heir could not pass on their property to the adopted son and it would be taken over by British.
  3. Satara (1848), Sambhalpur (1850), Jhansi (1854) were annexed by this policy.

Administration under British:

  1. In 1773, Warren Hastings become the Governor General of Bengal and controled the governors of other presidencies of Madras and Bombay.
  2. Separate civil and criminal courts were set up under the supervision of collector.
  3. New set of laws were compiled by muftis and Brahmins for the religious interpretation.

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