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Practice Questions for Class 12 Geography Human Settlements. myCBSEguide has just released Chapter Wise Question Answers for class 12 Geography. There chapter wise Practice Questions with complete solutions are available for download in myCBSEguide website and mobile app. These Questions with solution are prepared by our team of expert teachers who are teaching grade in CBSE schools for years. There are around 4-5 set of solved Geography Extra Questions from each and every chapter. The students will not miss any concept in these Chapter wise question that are specially designed to tackle Board Exam. We have taken care of every single concept given in CBSE Class 12 Geography syllabus and questions are framed as per the latest marking scheme and blue print issued by CBSE for class 12.
CBSE Class 12 Geography Practice Test
Class 12 Geography Chapter 10 Extra Questions
- Give the meaning of clustered rural settlement of India.
- What is Conurbation? Who had coined this term first?
- Give examples of ancient towns of India.
- Which areas are not attractive for human dwelling in the world?
- Explain with examples any three features of rural settlement of the world.
- What are three criteria in India to consider a settlement as an urban settlement?
Study the given table and answer the questions that follow.
Continent Wise Distribution of Million Cities
Continent Early 1950 Mid 1970s Mid 2000 Europe 23 30 58 Asia 32 69 206 North and Central America 16 36 79 South America 8 17 43 Africa 3 8 46 Australia 2 2 6 World Total 84 162 438
- Name the two continents which have shown the highest growth rate of million cities from 1950 to 2000.
- What could be the reason for such a growth of million cities.
- Give the meaning of a million city.
- Explain the town planning of Addis Ababa.
- Discuss any five patterns of rural settlements on the basis of forms or shapes.
- Explain the major environmental problems related to urban settlements in developing countries.
- It is a rural settlement where a number of families live in close proximity to each other. This living place is not surrounded by farms, barn or pastures.
- A conurbation is a region comprising a number of cities, large towns, and other urban areas that, through population growth and physical expansion, have merged to form one continuous urban or industrially developed area. Greater London, Manchester, Chicago and Tokyo are examples.The term ‘Conurbation’ was first coined by Patrick Geddes in 1915.
- Varanasi, Pataliputra/Patna, Mathura, and Allahabad are examples of ancient towns of India.
- Mountain, arid & forest (including harsh climatic) areas are not attractive for human dwelling in the world.
- Features of rural settlements are as follows:
- It is dominated by primary activities so they are concentrated in fertile lands, e.g. in South-East Asia, people choose to live along low lying river valleys and plains.
- It is concentrated where building materials are easily available, e.g. in African Savanna, mud bricks and in polar regions, ice blocks are used to construct houses.
- It is concentrated in uplands which are not prone to flooding and in terraces and levees which are a dry point, e.g. in tropical countries people built houses on stilts near marshy lands to protect themselves from floods, insects and pests.
- The three criterias to consider a settlement as an urban settlement in India are:
- Minimum population of 5000 with a density of 400 people/sq.Km.
- 75% of the population should be gaged in secondary activities and services.
- Places should have municipality, corporation or cantonment board.
- The two continents are Asia and Africa.
- The reason is migration of people from rural to urban areas is more as public facility and jobs are not available in rural areas.
- Million city is an urban settlement which accommodates more than 1 million population.
- The name of Ethiopian capital Addis Ababa, as the name indicates (Addis-New, Ababa-Flower). is a ‘new’ city which was established in 1878. The whole city is located on a hill-valley topography. The road pattern bears the influence of the local topography. The roads radiate from the govt headquarters Piazza, Arat and Amist Kilo roundabouts. Mercato has markets which grew with time and is supposed to be the largest market between Cairo and Johannesburg. A multi-faculty university, a medical college, a number of good schools make Addis Ababa an educational centre. It is also the terminal station for the Djibouti-Addis Ababa rail route. Bole airport is a relatively new airport.
- On the basis of forms or shapes of the settlements:
- Rectangular Pattern: Over 50 per cent of the world population lives in rural settlements, and most of the people inhabit the settlements of rectangular pattern. Rectangular settlements mainly develop in productive alluvial plains and wide intermontane valleys. The lanes in the rectangular settlements are almost straight, meeting each other at right angles. The rural settlements of the Sutlej-Ganga plains, especially those which developed on the cross-roads, fall in this category. The well-planned settlements of Germany, Russia, Central Asian Republics, China, North and South Korea, Vietnam, Malaysia, Israel and France also fall under this category.
- Linear pattern: It is the other most important design of settlements. In the linear settlements, houses are arranged along either side of a road, railway line, river or canal. Such settlements also evolve along the edge of a valley, especially in the mountainous areas, above flood level or along the coast. The development of linear settlements in the hilly areas is largely controlled by terrain and topography. Along the river banks and the sea shore, the flood and water level influence linear settlements. Such settlements are numerous in the Middle Himalayas, Alps, Rockies, Andese, Pyrenees, Pamir, Hindukush, Zagros, and Elburz Siwaliks and along the roads in the plains of Ganga-Yamuna.
- Circular and Semi-Circular Pattern: The fishermen and salt producers develop their settlements along the sea coasts and salt lakes, respectively. Since the people prefer to stay near the water, they construct their houses along the coasts. Such settlements acquire the circular or semi-circular shapes. In the vicinity of crater lakes and on the levees of ox-bow lakes, such settlements are found. The main occupation of the people of circular settlements is to err their livelihood from the water either by catching fish, water-nuts, grasses, or by providing services to the recreates, picnic goers and aesthetic beauty lovers.
- Star-Like Pattern: The star-like settlements develop on the sites and places where several metalled or unhealed roads converge. In the star-shaped settlements, houses spread out along the sides of roads in all direction. This pattern is common to both villages and towns, and is caused mostly by new development, spreading out along the major roads. This type of settlements is the characteristic of the countryside’s of North-West Europe, plains of Yangtzekiang, Punjab province of Pakistan and the Sutlej-Yamuna plains.
- T-shaped, Y-shaped, Cross-shaped or cruciform settlements: T-shaped settlements develop at tri-junctions of the roads. Y-shaped settlements develop as the places where two roads converge on the third one and houses are built along these roads. Cruciform settlements develop on the cross-roads and houses extend in all the four directions.
- Environmental problems related to urban settlements are as follows:
- The large urban population in developing countries not only uses but also disposes of a huge quantity of water and all types of waste materials.
- The massive use of traditional fuel in the domestic, as well as the industrial sector severely pollutes the air.
- An improper sewerage system creates unhealthy conditions. The domestic and industrial wastes are either let into the general sewerage or dumped without treatment at unspecified locations.
- Huge concrete structures created to accommodate the population and economic play a very conducive role to create heat islands.
Chapter Wise Extra Questions for Class 12 Geography
Fundamentals of Human Geography Chapters
- Human Geography Nature and Scope
- The World Population Distribution, Density and Growth
- Population Composition
- Human Development
- Primary Activities
- Secondary Activities
- Tertiary and Quaternary Activities
- Transport and Communication
- International Trade
- Human Settlements
India – People and Economy
- Population: Distribution, Density, Growth and Composition
- Migration: Types, Causes and Consequences
- Human Development
- Human Settlements
- Land Resources and Agriculture
- Water Resources
- Mineral and Energy Resources
- Manufacturing Industries
- Planning and Sustainable Development in Indian Context
- Transport and Communication
- International Trade
- Geographical Perspective on Selected Issues and Problems