NCERT Solutions class-11 Chemistry Organic Chemistry Some Basic Principles Part-1

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ORGANIC CHEMISTRY – SOME BASIC PRINCIPLES AND TECHNIQUES
 

1. What are hybridisation states of each carbon atom in the following compounds?

2. Indicate the bonds in the following molecules:


3. Write bond line formulas for: Isopropyl alcohol, 2,3-Dimethyl butanal, Heptan-4-one.

4. Give the IUPAC names of the following compounds:

(a)

14360839068514.jpg

(b)

1436083909108.jpg

(c)

1436083909891.jpg

(d)

14360839108358.jpg

(e)

14360839116053.jpg

(f)

5. Which of the following represents the correct IUPAC name for the compounds concerned?

(a) 2,2-Dimethylpentane or 2-Dimethylpentane

(b) 2,4,7-Trimethyloctane or 2,5,7-Trimethyloctane

(c) 2-Chloro-4-methylpentane or 4-Chloro-2-methylpentane

(d) But-3-yn-1-ol or But-4-ol-1-yne

6. Draw formulas for the first five members of each homologous series beginning with the following compounds.

(a) H-COOH

(b)

(c)

7. Give condensed and bond line structural formulas and identify the functional group(s) present, if any, for:

(a) 2,2,4-Trimethylpentane

(b) 2-Hydroxy-1,2,3-propanetricarboxylic acid

(c) Hexanedial

8. Identify the functional groups in the following compounds

(a)

14360839585072.jpg

(b)

14360839591179.jpg

(c)

14360839601215.jpg

9. Which of the two: is expected to be more stable and why?

10. Explain why alkyl groups act as electron donors when attached to a system.

11. Draw the resonance structures for the following compounds. Show the electron shift using curved-arrow notation.

(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

(e)

(f)

12. What are electrophiles and nucleophiles? Explain with examples.

13. Identify the reagents shown in bold in the following equations as nucleophiles or electrophiles:

14. Classify the following reactions in one of the reaction type studied in this unit.

(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

15. What is the relationship between the members of following pairs of structures? Are they structural or geometrical isomers or resonance contributors?

(a)

14360840410024.jpg

(b)

14360840417539.jpg

(c)

16. For the following bond cleavages, use curved-arrows to show the electron flow and classify each as homolysis or heterolysis. Identify reactive intermediate produced as free radical, carbocation and carbanion.

(a)

(b)

14360840695144.jpg

(c)

14360840702569.jpg

(d)

14360840711734.jpg

17. Explain the terms Inductive and Electromeric effects. Which electron displacement effect explains the following correct orders of acidity of the carboxylic acids?

(a)

(b)

18. Give a brief description of the principles of the following techniques taking an example in each case.

(a) Crystallisation

(b) Distillation

(c) Chromatography

19. Describe the method, which can be used to separate two compounds with different solubilities in a solvent S.

20. What is the difference between distillation, distillation under reduced pressure and steam distillation?


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