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India’s External relations Class 12 Important Questions. myCBSEguide has just released Chapter Wise Question Answers for class 12 Political Science. There chapter wise Practice Questions with complete solutions are available for download in myCBSEguide website and mobile app. These Questions with solution are prepared by our team of expert teachers who are teaching grade in CBSE schools for years. There are around 4-5 set of solved Political Science Extra Questions from each and every chapter. The students will not miss any concept in these Chapter wise question that are specially designed to tackle Board Exam. We have taken care of every single concept given in CBSE Class 12 Political Science syllabus and questions are framed as per the latest marking scheme and blue print issued by CBSE for class 12.
CBSE Class 12 Political Science Extra Questions
Political Science India’s External relations Class 12 Extra Questions
Class 12 – Political Science (Ch-4 India’s External relations)
- Hong Kong, Singapore, South Korea and Taiwan are known as _______.
- Asian Union
- Asian forum
- Asian tigers
- Asian diamond
What was the main demand of the Awami League in 1970?
Which treaty was signed by India in August 1971 and with which country?
Mention the causes of Kargil Conflict.
What is Panchsheel? When was it adopted and by whom?
Access any four principles of India’s foreign policy.
Why did India refuse to sign the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) of 1968?
Highlight the contribution made by Jawaharlal Nehru to the foreign policy of India.
Describe any two major issues of conflict between India and Pakistan leading to war of 1971.
In the Post Cold War Era what is the nature of India’s foreign policy in terms of shifting alliances in world politics?
Read this passage and answer the questions below:
“Broadly; non-alignment means not tying yourself off with military blocs… It means trying to view things, as far as possible, not from the military point of view; though that has to come in sometimes, but independently, and trying to maintain friendly relations with all countries. ”
- Why does Nehru want to keep off military blocs?
- Do you think that the Indo-Soviet friendship treaty violated the principle of non-alignment? Give reasons.
- If there were no military blocs, do you think non-alignment would have been unnecessary?
Study the picture given below and answer the questions that follow:
- What message does this cartoon convey?
- Which year is being shown here?
India’s foreign policy was built around the principles of peace and cooperation. But India fought three wars in a space of ten years between 1962 and 1972. Would you say that this was a failure of the foreign policy ? Or would you say that this was a result of international situation ? Give reasons.
Class 12 – Political Science (Ch-4 India’s External relations)
- Asian tigers
Explanation: They are called ASIAN tigers due to their economic strength.
- Asian tigers
- In 1970, the main demand of the Awami League was for setting up the federation.
- On August 1971, India signed 20-year Treaty of Peace and Friendship with the Soviet Union.
- Causes of Kargil Conflict are:
- In 1999, Pakistan army occupied Indian posts in Kargil.
- In the early part of 1999 several points on the Indian side of the LoC in the Mashkoh, Dras, Kaksar and Batalik areas were occupied by forces claiming to be Mujahideens.
- The Panchsheel treaty, also known as the Five Principles of Peaceful Coexistence, is a 1954 declaration of foreign policy that defined the relationship between the Republic of India and the People’s Republic of China. It was adopted by India’s Prime Minister Nehru and Chinese Premier Zhou Enlai on 29 April, 1954.
- Four principles of India’s foreign policy are as follows:
- Panchsheel emphasizes that India avoids using force and prefers peaceful methods in settling differences.
- India supports a multilateral approach to deal with global issues like disarmament, terrorism, unfair trade etc. This principle also explains India’s efforts in making institutions of global governance like the UN, the World Bank, the IMF, the WTO more legitimate and effective.
- India doesn’t choose to violate any international law-Conventions, treaties, standards-once it has given its consent and act in a manner that disturbs the peace or promotes injustice. Mutual benefits and equality
- Non-intervention in each other’s international affairs.
- India refused to sign the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) of 1968 because:
- India refused to sign NPT as it considered the treaty discriminatory.
- India needed to counter the nuclear threat of the neighbouring countries.
- Jawaharlal Nehru as Prime Minister and Foreign Minister played a key role in shaping India’s foreign policy based on principles of peace, freedom and prosperity. Jawaharlal Nehru is considered the architect of modern India. Apart from his careful handling of India’s domestic situation in the years immediately after Independence, Nehru’s major contribution lies in foreign policies. He focussed on :
- Policy of non-alignment
- India’s role in commonwealth
- Tackling issues of Kashmir, Tibet, China.
- Maintaining relations with Pakistan, US and USSR.
- Two Issues of conflict between India and Pakistan leading to War in 1971 are as follow:
- A serious armed struggle arose between India and Pakistan on December 1971 when Pakistan attacked Punjab and Rajasthan. In turn, India had to retaliate a war against Pakistan. It resulted in a huge loss of life and capital from both the sides.
- India had to bear 80 Iakh refugees who fled from East Pakistan to take shelter in India. Hence, India had to extend moral and material support to freedom struggle in Bangladesh against Pakistan.
Due to these reasons, India had to indulge in the war against Pakistan in 1971.
- In the Post Cold War Era India’s foreign policy had shifted to a more pro-US stance with the disintegration of USSR:
- At present India’s foreign policy rather more emphasizes on economic interests in place of military.
- India favoured active intervention in world affairs to soften Cold War rivalries. It, therefore, tried to reduce the differences between Russia and the USA and prevented differences from escalating into a full-scale war. For example, India mediated in the Korean war in the early 1950s.
- Every Indo-Pak relations have also witnessed many new developments.
- Efforts are being made to restore normal relations with other countries through cultural exchange.
- Nehru wanted to keep off military blocs to view things independently and to maintain friendly relations with all countries. His aim was also to get aid and assistance from members of both the blocs.
- No, Indo-Soviet friendship treaty did not violate the principle of non-alignment because it did not prevent India to have good relations with the US. Moreover, this treaty was signed in view of US-Pakistan-China axis at that time. India did not join the Soviet bloc. The treaty assured India of Soviet support if the country faced any attack. There was no pressure of any kind on India who followed the policy of non – alignment.
- Even if there were no military bloc, the non-alignment would have been necessary. Countries of various political systems and interests had joined it. Non-alignment was based on a recognition that decolonised states share a historical affiliation and can become a powerful force if they come together. It meant that the newly independent states could pursue an independent foreign policy. It was based on a resolve to democratise the international system by an alternative world order to redress the existing inequalities.
- The given cartoon by AMUL conveys a message on the growing tension between India & China to be resolved.
- The Chinese invasion in the year 1962 is being shown here.
- India fought three wars in a space of ten years between 1962 and 1972. This was not a failure of the foreign policy but these wars were a result of an international situation. The reasons for these wars were as given below:
- India had outstanding disputes with China in the Aksai-Chin area and NEFA. In 1962 when the Cuban-Missile Crisis had drawn the attention of the whole world, China found an opportunity to invade India on both the disputed region. This led to war between India and China.
- In 1965, there was war with Pakistan over the question of Kashmir. Pakistan had probably hoped that India had already been defeated by China, it would be easy to defeat India again. Pakistani rulers were also hoping to get support from the local population in Kashmir. This, however, did not happen and India defeated Pakistan.
- The third war in 1971 was involved in the question of East Pakistan, now Bangladesh, where people were fighting a freedom struggle against Pakistan rulers. So this was a result of an internal conflict of Pakistan and not the failure of India’s foreign policy.
Contemporary World Politics
- The Cold War Era
- The End of Bipolarity
- US Hegemony in World Politics
- Alternative Centres of Power
- Contemporary South Asia
- International Organisations
- Security in the Contemporary World
- Environment and Natural Resources
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