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Crisis of the Democratic Order Class 12 Political Science. myCBSEguide has just released Chapter Wise Question Answers for class 12 Political Science. There chapter wise Practice Questions with complete solutions are available for download in myCBSEguide website and mobile app. These Questions with solution are prepared by our team of expert teachers who are teaching grade in CBSE schools for years. There are around 4-5 set of solved Political Science Extra Questions from each and every chapter. The students will not miss any concept in these Chapter wise question that are specially designed to tackle Board Exam. We have taken care of every single concept given in CBSE Class 12 Political Science syllabus and questions are framed as per the latest marking scheme and blue print issued by CBSE for class 12.
CBSE Class 12 Political Science Extra Questions
Crisis of the Democratic Order Class 12 Political Science Important Questions
Class 12 – Political Science (Ch-6 Crisis of the Democratic Order)
- Which of the following Prime minister rejected the report of kalelkar commission?
- J L Nehru
- Lal Bahadur Shastri
- V. P. Singh
- Indira Gandhi
Why did Congress win in Southern states?
Who led the Railway Strike in 1974? What was its main demand?
Who was appointed Chief Justice of India in 1973? Why did this appointment become controversial?
How many Lok Sabha seats were won by the Janata Party and its allies in the General Elections of March 1977?
Mention the issues on which the campaign of Janata Party was focused in the general elections of 1977.
How far do you agree that the government had misused its emergency powers during 1975-77? Explain.
Explain lessons learnt from emergency imposed in 1975.
Evaluate the consequences of declaration of emergency in 1975?
Explain the reasons for students movement of 1974 in Bihar and the role played by Jayaprakash Narayan in this movement.
Read the map given below and answer the questions that follow:
- Identify the States where Congress lost.
- Congress lost very badly.
- Those States where Congress and its allies nearly swept the polls.
- In which States Congress was able to retain many seats?
Study the following passage carefully and answer the questions that follow.
The Emergency made everyone more aware of the value of civil liberties. The Courts too, have taken an active role after the Emergency in protecting the civil liberties of the individuals. This is a response to the inability of the judiciary to protect civil liberties effectively during the Emergency.
- Which Fundamental Right of the citizens was affected the most during the Emergency period in 1975?
- Why did the judiciary start taking an active role after the emergency in protecting the civil liberties of the individuals?
- Should there be no restriction on the ‘Right to Civil Liberties’? Support your answer with one suitable argument.
Analyse any three lessons that were learnt from the Emergency, declared in India on 25th June, 1975.
Class 12 – Political Science (Ch-6 Crisis of the Democratic Order)
- J L Nehru
Explanation: Kalelkar commission’s report was submitted in 1955 before the government of India but contemporary prime minister Pt. Nehru rejected it.
- J L Nehru
- The reason for the Congress victory in southern states were as:
- The impact of Emergency was not felt equally in all the states.
- The forced relocation and dis- placements, the forced sterilisations were mostly concentrated in the northern states.
- Railway Strike of 1974 was led by George Fernandes gave call for nationwide strike by all employees of the Railways for pressing their demands related to bonus and service conditions.
- In 1973, the government set aside the seniority of three judges and appointed Justice A.N. Ray as the Chief Justice of India. The appointment became politically controversial because all the three judges who were superseded had given rulings against the stand of the government.
- The Janata Party and its allies won 330 out of 542 seats in the Lok Sabha; Janata Party itself won 295 seats and thus enjoyed a clear majority.
- The issues on which the campaign of Janata Party was focused in the general elections of 1977 were:
- A non-democratic character of the rule of the Congress.
- Excesses during the Emergency i.e., censorship of the Press, arrests, custodial deaths.
- No, the government did not misuse its ‘Emergency Powers’ during 1975-77. The government said that it wanted to use the Emergency to bring law and order, to restore efficiency, and above all, implement the pro-poor welfare programmes. The government led by Indira Gandhi announced a twenty point programme and declared its determination to implement this programme. It included land reforms, land redistribution, review of agricultural wages, workers’ participation in management eradication of bonded labour etc.
- The emergency of 1975 at once brought out both the weaknesses and strengths of India’s democracy:
- The First lesson was felt that it was extremely difficult to do away with democracy in India.
- Secondly, ‘internal emergency can be proclaimed only on the grounds of armed rebellion’, it necessary that the advice to the President to proclaim emergency must be given in writing by the Council of Ministers.
- Thirdly, Emergency made everyone more aware of civil liberties. The courts too have taken an active role after the emergency in protecting civil liberties of individuals. Many civil liberties organisations came up after this experience.
- The consequences of the declaration of emergency in 1975 were as follows:
- It affected civil liberties of peoples i.e. in April 1976 it was proved that the government could take away citizens’ right to life and liberty by overruling of high courts under supreme courts and accepted government’s plea.
- The Forty-Second Amendment was also passed to bring a series of changes in the constitution.
- It affected the functioning of mass media also. Press censorship took place which banned freedom of the press. Newspapers were asked to get prior or approval for all material to be published.
- Many cases were filed in the High Court and the Supreme Court by and on behalf of arrested persons but the government claimed that it was not even necessary to inform the arrested persons of the reasons and grounds of their arrest.
- The reasons for the Student’s Movement of 1974 in Bihar:
- Students came together in Bihar to protest against rising prices of food grains, cooking oil and other essential commodities.
The role played by Jayaprakash Narayan:
He announced a nationwide Satyagraha for Indira Gandhi’s resignation and asked the army, the police and government employees not to obey illegal and immoral orders by a massive demonstration on 25 June 1975. The political mood of the country had turned against the Congress.
- Haryana, Himachal Pradesh, UP, Bihar, West Bengal, Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan, Tamil Nadu.
- In Haryana, UP, Bihar, Delhi, Punjab, the Congress could not win even a single seat. In Rajasthan and Madhya Pradesh it could win only one seat each.
- In Andhra Pradesh, Kerala, Karnataka i.e., the southern States Congress and its allies swept the polls.
- In Maharashtra, Gujarat and Orissa it retained many seats.
- Fundamental Right of the citizens was affected the most during the Emergency period in 1975 were Freedom of Speech and Expression.
- The judiciary starts taking an active role after the Emergency in protecting the civil liberties of the individuals because, during the Emergency, the judiciary was unable to protect the civil liberties and Fundamental Rights such as Right to Freedom of Speech and Expression of the individuals.
- I would say that there should not be a restriction on the Right to Civil Liberties but rather there should be some limit on civil liberties in the name of national security because the community rights overcome the individual rights. Therefore, limiting the civil liberty of an individual will protect the rights of a community.
- Ist Lesson: India cannot survive in a system other than democracy. Censorship was imposed on the rights of the press and a number of people and their leaders were detained and arrested. Shah Commission had reported exploitation, repression, and suppression of people by the Government considerably. The opposition had argued that people had rights to criticise the government policies which were found coercive, torturous, repressive and uncalled-for in democracy. The Commission had emphasised that there was no need for proclamation of Emergency under Article 352 of the Indian Constitution as it was Government exclusively found coercive. In brief, we can state that India cannot survive as a democracy if the Emergency is proclaimed frequently and without any sound reason.
- IInd Lesson: It had disclosed weaknesses and powers of one-party government. People of India could first time realise conditions that make democracy so powerful as to inflict atrocity and take away with fundamental rights of citizens duly guaranteed in the Constitution of India. The conflict between executive and judiciary made it clear that the judiciary can exercise its power when the executive goes astray. People could understand how their blind support to the one-party government might result in severe suffering for them. Formation of the Janta Party’s government after Emergency was people’s reaction upon Emergency. It is plausible to mention here that Indira Gandhi and her son Sanjay were defeated in the election of 1977 from Rai Bareilly and Amethi respectively. The public could understand the importance of opposition party for the social health of democracy,
- IIIrd Lesson: Ruling-party could understand the supreme power of people in the democratic setup of India. The Emergency had not only imparted true education of democracy but the ruling party also could learn that these were people, powerful enough for creation, nourishment and destruction of the Government at their will provided that they should literate, enlightened and bold enough to react against the system if it has contaminated. Railway employees also had observed a nationwide strike (Hartal) against the ruling government. Actually, it was the voice of people of India as a whole that had overthrown the coercive government in general elections of 1977.
Chapter Wise Extra Questions of Class 12 Political Science
Contemporary World Politics
- The Cold War Era
- The End of Bipolarity
- US Hegemony in World Politics
- Alternative Centres of Power
- Contemporary South Asia
- International Organisations
- Security in the Contemporary World
- Environment and Natural Resources
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