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Class 12 Political Science Era of One-party Dominance Extra Questions. myCBSEguide has just released Chapter Wise Question Answers for class 12 Political Science. There chapter wise Practice Questions with complete solutions are available for download in myCBSEguide website and mobile app. These Questions with solution are prepared by our team of expert teachers who are teaching grade in CBSE schools for years. There are around 4-5 set of solved Political Science Extra Questions from each and every chapter. The students will not miss any concept in these Chapter wise question that are specially designed to tackle Board Exam. We have taken care of every single concept given in CBSE Class 12 Political Science syllabus and questions are framed as per the latest marking scheme and blue print issued by CBSE for class 12.
CBSE Class 12 Political Science Extra Questions
Chapter 2 Class 12 Political Science Practice Questions
Class 12 – Political Science (Ch-2 Era of One-party Dominance)
- When did Hindu Mahasabha come into existence?
- What is meant by ‘one-party dominance’ in the Indian context?
- Differentiate between one party dominance and one party system.
- Who was the Chairman of the Drafting Committee of the Constituent Assembly?
- What were the election symbols of the Congress Party and Bharatiya Jana Sangh in the first general election of 1952?
- How did the dominance of Congress Party in the first three general elections help in establishing a democratic set-up in India?
- Why was the first general election in India considered unusual?
- How has the method of voting changed from the first General Election of 1952 to the General Election of 2004?
- Explain any five reasons for the dominance of the Congress Party in the first three general elections.
- State the ideologies of the Swatantra Party.
- Read the passage given below carefully and answer the questions:
These groups inside the party are called factions. The coalitional nature of the Congress party tolerated and in fact encouraged various factions. Some of these factions were based on ideological considerations but very often these factions were rooted in personal ambitions and rivalries. Instead of being a weakness, internal factionalism became a strength of the Congress. Since there was room within the party for various factions to fight with each other, it meant that leaders representing different interests and ideologies remained within Congress rather than go out and form a new party.
- Which trend in the Congress party is worth emulating?
- What were the reasons for forming the various factions in the Congress party?
- Why did the Congress leaders have no desire to form new parties leaving Congress? Give reasons.
- Study the map given below and answer the following questions:
- Did the congress maintain the increase in the members in these elections.
- Which political party continued to gain seats in all the elections?
- Name the political parties which contested only two of the three elections.
- Minority community candidates are nominated by national democratic parties in constituencies. Explain.
Class 12 – Political Science (Ch-2 Era of One-party Dominance)
Explanation: In 1930 Hindu Mahasabha came into existence after the formation of Muslim league 1906.
- The dominance of Congress party in first three general elections held in 1952, 1957 and 1962 in both Lok Sabha as well as in State Assemblies is termed as One-party dominance in Indian context. Congress won 364 seats out of 489 in 1952, 371 out of 494 in 1957, and won 361 out of 494 seats in 1962 Lok Sabha elections.
Sr no. One Party Dominance One Party System 1. One party dominance refers to representation on behalf of popular consensus along with free and fair elections. One party system refers to representation based on malpractice, fraud etc. to ensure winning of a particular party. 2. E.g. Congress in India. E.g. Chinese Communist Party in China.
- The Chairman of the Drafting Committee of the Constituent Assembly was Dr. B. R. Ambedkar.
- In the first general election of 1952, the symbol of Congress party was the pair of oxen and lamp (Deepak) was the symbol of Bhartiya Jana Sangh.
- The dominance of the Congress Party in the first three general elections help in establishing a democratic set-up in India in the following way:
- The first general election was the first big test of democracy in a poor and illiterate country. Till then democracy had existed only in the prosperous countries. By that time many countries in Europe had not given voting rights to all women.
- In this context, India’s experiment with universal adult franchise appeared very bold and risky. India’s general election of 1952 became a landmark in the history of democracy all over the world.
- It was no longer possible to argue that democratic elections could not be held on conditions of poverty or lack of education. It proved that democracy could be practiced anywhere in the world.
- Congress worked as the social and ideological coalition which is also known as a rainbow-like coalition representing India’s diversity which helped in establishing democratic set-up and the next two general elections strengthened democratic set-up in India.
- The first general election in India considered unusual due to:
- Big size of the country and electorate.
- It was also the first big test of democracy in a poor and illiterate country.
- India experiments with Universal Adult Franchise which appeared very bold and risky because by that time many countries in Europe had not given voting rights to all women.
- The method of voting changed from the first general elections of 1952 to the general election of 2004 as below:
- In the first general election, it was decided to place inside each polling booth a box for each candidate with the election symbol of that candidate. Each voter was given a blank ballot which they had to drop into the box of the candidate they wanted to vote for. About 20 lakh steel boxes were used for this purpose.
- After the first two elections, this method was changed. Now the ballot paper carried the names and symbols of all the candidates and the voter was required to put a stamp on the name of the candidate they wanted to vote for. This method worked for nearly forty years.
- Towards the end of the 1990s, the Election Commission started using the Electronic Voting Machines (EVMs). In 2004, Electronic Voting Machine was introduced to press the button according to the choice of the voter containing the name of candidate and symbol of the political party.
- The Congress party succeeded in maintaining its dominance until 1967 due to the following reasons:
- The Congress party was supported by elites, educated business classes and middle classes people. It also got support from peasants because of its socialist nature. In this way had support from every section of society.
- It had many popular faces like Jawaharlal Nehru, C Rajgopalachari, Vallabhbhai Patel etc. Moreover, Jawaharlal Nehru was charismatic and a very popular leader. The popularity of these Congress leaders had a great impact over the face of Congress in General Elections.
- Congress worked at the upper level as well as at the grass root level. Congress was popularised due to the participation in the civil disobedience movement. Its role in the National Movement for freedom had been a major reason for its success in First three General Elections.
- During the period of Nehru Ji, Congress attained mass popularity, but the powerful narrow elite of Congress continued to benefit from the low level of political consciousness of the electorate.
- The traditional localities made Congress, a one-party dominance.
- Swatantra Party was formed in August 1959 after the Nagpur resolution of the Congress which called for land ceilings, take-over of food grain trade by the state and adoption of cooperative farming. The party was led by old Congressmen like C. Rajagopalachari, K.M.Munshi, N.G.Ranga, and Minoo Masani. The party stood out from the others in terms of its position on economic issues. The ideologies of the Swatantra Party are given below:
- The Swatantra Party wanted the government to be less and less involved in controlling the economy. It believed that prosperity could come only through individual freedom.
- It was critical of the development strategy of state intervention in the economy, centralised planning, nationalisation and the public sector. It instead favoured expansion of a free private sector.
- This party was against land ceilings in agriculture and opposed to cooperative farming.
- The Swatantra Party was against land ceilings in agriculture and opposed cooperative farming and state trading. It was also opposed to the progressive tax regime and demanded dismantling of the licensing regime.
- The Congress party is worth emulating due to its factional nature, Congress was tolerable to the different factions. For this reason, the various factions present in the Congress party were encouraged. This quality of Congress is worth emulating.
- Some factions were attached to the Congress party on account of ideological considerations. But personal ambitions and rivalries always worked behind the formation of factions in the Congress party. Besides, instead of being a weakness, internal factionalism became a strength of the Congress.
- The Congress leaders did not have the desire to form new parties leaving Congress. The reasons for this were the following :
- There was always scope for rivalries among the various parties in Congress.
- The leaders representing the various interests and ideology always liked to work within the Congress party.
- Behind all these, they had personal ambitions and they worked with a sense of rivalries also.
- No, Congress could not maintain the increase in the members in these elections because the number of seats had started decreasing from 364 in 1952 to 361 in 1962. However, 7 seats increased in 1997 as we see, 371 seats in this map.
- It was C.P.I. as it could beg 16 seats in 1952, 27 seats in 1957 and 29 seats in 1962.
- These were-Socialist Party, Gantantra Parisad (GP), Independent and Praja Socialist Party (PSP).
- The voter’s choices are made under multiple influences of election issues, election campaigns, local appeals, party performance and promises. Many overlapping factors influence their decisions. The regional parties like the DMK, AIADMK of Tamil Nadu, the National Conference of Jammu and Kashmir, the Shiv Sena of Maharashtra and the Akali Dal of Punjab mobilize the voters by mixing feelings of regionalism, castes and community.
- The minorities generally vote for weak secular parties. Minority community candidates are nominated by national democratic parties in constituencies which have sizable minority community vote. In the elections from 1952 to 1989, the Muslim minority voter has shown concern for the security of life and property, especially in the north and north-west India. Local Muslim leaders including religious leaders have been mobilized by secular parties to influence the choice of Muslim voters. The Muslim voters have unanimously voted against candidates of the Hindu communal parties. This is a conscious vote based on a perception of threat by the forces of Hindu communalism. To counter this threat, the Muslim voters have voted for weak secular parties which are perceived as the protector of life and property of the minorities. Of late, secularism of the Congress Party had been perceived as vacillating and ambiguous by a large section of the Muslim community. Communal riots have exercised great influence on the Muslim mind.
Chapter Wise Extra Questions of Class 12 Political Science
Contemporary World Politics
- The Cold War Era
- The End of Bipolarity
- US Hegemony in World Politics
- Alternative Centres of Power
- Contemporary South Asia
- International Organisations
- Security in the Contemporary World
- Environment and Natural Resources
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