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CBSE Syllabus for Class 12 Geography 2019-20

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CBSE Syllabus for Class 12 Geography 2019-20 contains all the topics of this session. myCBSEguide provides you latest Syllabus for Class 12 Geography in PDF format for free download. Geography for pursuing their academic interest and, therefore, need a broader and deeper understanding of the subject. For others, geographical knowledge is useful in daily lives because it is a valuable medium for the education of young people. Its contribution lies in the content, cognitive processes, skills and values that Geography promotes and thus helps the students explore, understand and evaluate the environmental and social dimensions of the world in a better manner. CBSE syllabus of class 12 is now available in myCBSEguide mobile app. The curriculum for March 2020 exams is designed by CBSE, New Delhi as per NCERT textbooks for the session 2019-20.

CBSE Syllabus for class 12 Geography 2019-20

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CBSE Syllabus Class 12 Geography

Total Marks: 70
Time: 3 Hours

PartUnitsNo. of PeriodsMarks
AFundamentals of Physical Geography9035 Marks
Unit-1: Human Geography0530
Unit-2: People18
Unit-3: Human Activities28
Unit-4: Transport, Communication and Trade24
Unit-5: Human Settlements10
Map Work055
BIndia-Physical Environment9035Marks
Unit-6: People1530
Unit-7: Human Settlements10
Unit-8: Resources and Development30
Unit-9: Transport, Communication and International Trade15
Unit-10: Geography Perspective on selected issues and problems15
Map Work055
Total18070 Marks
CPractical Work4030 Marks
Unit-1: Processing of Data and Thematic Mapping2515
Unit-2: Field study or Spatial Information Technology1510
Practical Record Book and Viva5

Course Structure
Class 12 (2019 – 20)

Part A: Fundamentals of Physical Geography 90Periods
Unit 1: Human Geography:
 Nature and Scope (05 Periods)
Unit 2: People

  • Population-distribution, density and growth
  • Population change-spatial patterns and structure; determinants of population change
  • Population Composition – age-sex ratio; rural-urban composition
  • Human development – concept; selected indicators, international comparisons

Unit 3: Human Activities

  • Primary activities – concept and changing trends; gathering, pastoral, mining, subsistence agriculture, modern agriculture; people engaged in agricultural and allied activities – some examples from selected countries
  • Secondary activities-concept; manufacturing: types – household, small scale, large scale; agro based and mineral based industries; people engaged in secondary activities – some examples from selected countries
  • Tertiary activities-concept; trade, transport and tourism; services; people engaged in tertiary activities – some examples from selected countries
  • Quatenary activities-concept; people engaged in quatenary activities – case study from selected countries

Unit 4: Transport, Communication and Trade (24 Periods )

  • Land transport – roads, railways; trans-continental railways
  • Water transport- inland waterways; major ocean routes
  • Air transport- Intercontinental air routes
  • Oil and gas pipelines
  • Satellite communication and cyber space- importance and usage for geographical information; use of GPS
  • International trade- bases and changing patterns; ports as gateways of international trade; role of WTO in international trade

Unit 5: Human Settlements (10 Periods)

  • Settlement types – rural and urban; morphology of cities (case study); distribution of megacities; problems of human settlements in developing countries

Map Work on identification of features based on 1-5 units on the outline Physical/Political map of World. (05 Periods)

Part B: India: People and Economy (90 Periods)
Unit 6: People (15 Periods) 

  • Population: distribution, density and growth; composition of population – linguistic, religious; sex, rural-urban and occupational-regional variations in growth of population
  • Migration: international, national-causes and consequences
  • Human development: selected indicators and regional patterns
  • Population, environment and development

Unit 7: Human Settlements (10 Periods)

  • Rural settlements – types and distribution
  • Urban settlements – types, distribution and functional classification 10 Periods

Unit 8: Resources and Development (30 Periods)

  • Land resources- general land use; agricultural land use; geographical conditions and distribution of major crops (Wheat, Rice, Tea, Coffee, Cotton, Jute, Sugarcane and Rubber); agricultural development and problems.
  • Water resources-availability and utilization-irrigation, domestic, industrial and other uses; scarcity of water and conservation methods-rain water harvesting and watershed management.
  • Mineral and energy resources- distribution of metallic (Iron ore, Copper, Bauxite, Manganese); non-metallic (Mica, Salt) minerals; conventional (Coal, Petroleum, Natural gas and Hydroelectricity) and non-conventional energy sources (solar, wind, biogas) and conservation.
  • Industries – types, factors of industrial location; distribution and changing pattern of selected industriesiron and steel, cotton textiles, sugar, petrochemicals, and knowledge based industries; impact of liberalization, privatization and globalization on industrial location; industrial clusters.
  • Planning in India- target group area planning (case study); idea of sustainable development (case study) 30 Periods

Unit 9: Transport, Communication and International Trade (15 Periods)

  • Transport and communication-roads, railways, waterways and airways: oil and gas pipelines; Geographical information and communication networks.
  • International trade- changing pattern of India’s foreign trade; seaports and their hinterland and airports

Unit 10: Geographical Perspective on selected issues and problems (15 Periods)

  • Environmental pollution; urban-waste disposal
  • Urbanization, rural-urban migration; problems of slums
  • Land degradation

Map work on locating and labelling of features based on above units on outline map of India. (05 Periods)

Part C: Practical Work 40 Periods
Unit 1: Processing of Data and Thematic Mapping (25 Periods)

  • Type and Sources of data: Primary, Secondary and other sources
  • Tabulating and processing of data; calculation of averages, measures of central tendency
  • Representation of data- construction of diagrams: bars, circles and flowchart; thematic maps; construction of dot; choropleth and isopleths maps
  • Data analysis and generation of diagrams, graphs and other visual diagrams using computers.

Unit 2: Field Study or Spatial Information Technology

  • Field visit and study: map orientation, observation and preparation of sketch; survey on any one of the local concerns; pollution, ground water changes, land use and land-use changes, poverty, energy issues, soil degradation, impact of floods and drought, catchment area of school, Market survey and Household survey (any one topic of local concern may be taken up for the study; observation and questionnaire survey may be adopted for the data collection; collected data may be tabulated and analyzed with diagrams and maps). Students can be given different topics to get more insight into various problems of society.ORSpatial Information Technology
    Introduction to GIS; hardware requirements and software modules; data formats; raster and vector data, data input, editing and topology building; data analysis; overlay and buffer.

Fundamentals of Human Geography
Class XII – Textbook I (NCERT)
Map Items for identification only on outline political map of the World.

Unit-1 Ch.-1
Unit-2 Ch. 2 to 4

  1. The largest country in each continent in terms of area

Unit-3 Ch. 5 to 7

  1. Areas of subsistence gathering
    Primary Activities
  2. Major areas of nomadic herding of the world
  3. Major areas of commercial livestock rearing
  4. Major areas of extensive commercial grain faming
  5. Major areas of mixed farming of the World
  6. Major areas of Mediterraneanagriculture of the World
    Secondary Activities

    1. Ruhr region, Silicon Valley, Appalachian region, Great lakesregio

Unit – 4 Ch. 8 to 9

  1. Transcontinental Railways: Terminal Stations of transcontinentalrailways- Trans siberian, Trans Canadian, Tran Australian Railways
  2. Major Sea Ports :
    Europe: North Cape, London, Hamburg
    North America: Vancouver, San Francisco, New Orleans
    South America: Rio De Janeiro, Colon, Valparaiso
    Africa: Suez, Durban and Cape Town
    Asia: Yokohama, Shanghai, Hong Kong,
    Aden, Karachi, Kolkata
    Australia: Perth, Sydney, Melbourne
  3. Inland Waterways: Suez canal, Panama canal, Rhine waterway and St. Lawrence Seaway
  4. Major Airports:
    Asia: Tokyo, Beijing, Mumbai, Jedda, Aden
    Africa: Johannesburg & Nairobi
    Europe: Moscow, London, Paris, Berlin and Rome
    North America: Chicago, New Orleans, Mexico City
    South America: Buenos Aires, Santiago
    Australia: Drarwin and Wellington

Unit – 5 Ch. 10
Mega cities of the world – Tokyo, Delhi, Shanghai, Mumbai, Saopaulo

India – People and Economy
Class XII-Textbook II (NCERT)
Map Items for locating and labelling only on the outline political map of India

Units – 6 & 7 Ch. 1 to 4

  • State with highest level of urbanization and lowest level of urbanization
  • One state with highest level of HDI & One lowest level of HDI
  • Statewithhigherlevelofpopulation density &onestatewith lowest level of population density
  • One out migrating state
  • One in migrating state
  • Any city with more than 10 million population – Greater Mumbai, Delhi, Kolkata, Chennai, Bengaluru

Unit – 8 Ch. 5 to 9 Leading producing states of the following crops:
(a) Rice (b) Wheat (c) Jowar (d) Cotton, (e) Jute (f) Sugarcane (g) Tea and (h) Coffee


  • Iron-ore mines: Mayurbhanj, Bailadila, Ratnagiri, Bellary
  • Manganese mines: Balaghat, Shimoga
  • Copper mines: Hazaribagh, Singhbhum, Khetari
  • Bauxite mines: Katni, Bilaspur and Koraput  Coal mines: Jharia, Bokaro, Raniganj, Neyveli
  • Oil Refineries: Mathura, Jamnagar, BaroniIndustries

Iron and Steel Plants: Bhadravati, Bhilai, Bokaro, Durgapur, Rourkela and Jamshedpur. Cotton Textile: Surat, Varanasi, Murshidabad, Solapur and Coimbatore
Software Technology Parks: Gandhinagar, Shrinagar, Mohali, Noida, Indore, Hyderabad, Bengaluru and Major Industrial Regions.

Unit – 9 Ch. 10 – 11

  1. Important nodes on north-south corridor, east-west corridor & golden quadrieteral
  2. Major Sea Ports: Kandla, Mumbai, Marmagao, Kochi, Mangalore, Tuticorin, Chennai, Vishakhapatnam, Paradwip, Haldia
  3. International Airports: Ahmedabad, Mumbai, Bengaluru, Chennai, Kolkata, Guwahati, Delhi, Amritsar, Thiruvananthapuram & Hyderabad

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