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CBSE Sample Papers Class 11 Political Science 2024

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CBSE Sample Question Paper for Class 11 Political Science – in PDF

Political Science is one of the most popular subjects in the humanities stream. Although this subject demands comprehensive study but the practice of the question paper is also very important. We provide CBSE Sample Papers 2024 for class 11 Political Science based on the new marking scheme and blueprint.  These Sample Papers are available for free download in the myCBSEguide app and website in PDF format.

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CBSE Sample Papers Class 11 Political Science 2024

CBSE class 11 Political Science Sample paper


Class 11 – Political Science
Sample Paper – 01 (2023-24)

Maximum Marks: 80
Time Allowed: : 3 hours

General Instructions:

  1. All questions are compulsory.
  2. Question numbers 1-12 are multiple choice questions of one mark each.
  3. Question numbers 13-18 are of 2 marks each. Answers to these questions should not exceed 50 words each.
  4. Question numbers 19-23 are of 4 marks each. Answers to these questions should not exceed 100 words each.
  5. Question numbers 24-26 are passage, cartoon and map-based questions. Answer accordingly.
  6. Question numbers 27-30 are of 6 marks each. Answers to these questions should not exceed 170 words.
  7. There is an internal choice in 6 marks questions.

  1. Class 11 Pol Sc Sample Paper Section A

  2. Arrange the following in chronological order-
    1. Provisions of the Panchayat system to tribal areas.
    2. Central government introduced two constitutional amendments.
    3. The 73rd and 74th constitutional amendments were passed.
    4. The 73rd and 74th Amendments came into force.
    a) a, c, d, b
    b) b, c, d, a
    c) b, d, c, a
    d) a, b, d, c
  3. Campaigns take place for a period of between the announcement of the final list of candidates and the date of polling?
    a) One week
    b) Three weeks
    c) Two weeks
    d) One month
  4. Which of the following is also known as the Council of States?
    a) Vidhan Parishad
    b) Vidhan Sabha
    c) Lok Sabha
    d) Rajya Sabha
  5. Which one of the following arguments is against the Universal Adult Franchise?
    a) It ensures political equality
    b) It makes people politically awakened
    c) It inculcates anti-nationalism
    d) It is democratic
  6. Which of these is not a function of the Constitution?
    a) It gives expression to some shared values.
    b) It marks out different spheres of power for different branches of the government.
    c) It ensures that good people come to power.
    d) It gives a guarantee of the rights of the citizen.
  7. Assertion (A): Indian secularism allows for principled state intervention in all religions.
    Reason (R): Religiously sanctioned caste-hierarchies are not acceptable within Indian secularism.

    a) Both A and R are true and R is the correct explanation of A.
    b) Both A and R are true but R is not the correct explanation of A.
    c) A is true but R is false.
    d) A is false but R is true.
  8. Choose the option which is being adopted in India to minimize and eliminate entrenched forms of social inequalities.
    a) Free education
    b) Separate facilities for the disadvantaged
    c) Policy of quotas in education and jobs
    d) Separate hospitals

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  9. How many years maximum can a Vice President serve the country?
    a) Three
    b) Ten
    c) Six
    d) Five
  10. The feeling or sentiment for having an independent state is called
    a) Religion
    b) Nationalism
    c) Spiritualism
    d) Capitalism
  11. Assertion (A): The Constitution has separately listed Fundamental Rights and made special provisions for their protection.
    Reason (R): Fundamental Rights are different from other rights available to us.

    a) Both A and R are true and R is the correct explanation of A.
    b) Both A and R are true but R is not the correct explanation of A.
    c) A is true but R is false.
    d) A is false but R is true.
  12. Free market is a product of
    a) Socialism
    b) Patriarchy
    c) Feminism
    d) Neo-liberalism
  13. Which of the following try to minimize existing inequality and distribute resources justly?
    a) Equalism
    b) Socialism
    c) Gandhism
    d) Capitalism
  14. Class 11 Pol Sc Sample Paper Section B

  15. Write the main features of Constitution of India.
  16. Was Mahatma Gandhi in favour or against the implementation of Panchayati Raj System.
  17. The Prime Minister is the link between the Council of Ministers and the President.
  18. Describe in brief the natural equality.
  19. What do you mean by protective discrimination?
  20. Prove from the contemporary world situation that the process of redrawing state boundaries is continued even since after the beginning of seventh decade of 20th century.
  21. Class 11 Pol Sc Sample Paper Section C

  22. What is meant by Minority Representation?
  23. What is the jurisdiction of the high courts?
  24. What are the limitations on the “Right to freedom of speech and expression”?


    Under what circumstances can a citizen disobey the state?

  25. Discuss how the parliament can control and ensure the accountability of the council of ministers.


    Describe the composition, powers, and functions of the State Legislative Council.

  26. Political Science is not Science. Explain with reasons.
  27. Class 11 Pol Sc Sample Paper Section D

  28. Read the text carefully and answer the questions:
    During our freedom struggle, the leaders of the freedom movement had realised the importance of rights and demanded that the British rulers should respect rights of the people. The Motilal Nehru committee had demanded a bill of rights as far back as in 1928. It was therefore, natural that when India became independent and the Constitution was being prepared, there were no two opinions on the inclusion and protection of rights in the Constitution. The Constitution listed the rights that would be specially protected and called them ‘fundamental rights’. Fundamental Rights are different from other rights available to us. While ordinary legal rights are protected and enforced by ordinary law, Fundamental Rights are protected and guaranteed by the constitution of the country. Ordinary rights may be changed by the legislature by ordinary process of law making, but a fundamental right may only be changed by amending the Constitution itself.

    1. Which of the following is incorrect statement?
      1. The constitution of nation safeguards and guarantees fundamental rights
      2. In terms of our other rights, fundamental rights are similar.
      3. The leaders understood the value of rights during the time of our struggle for independence
      4. Ordinary law safeguards and upholds the ordinary legal rights.
      a) Option (b)
      b) Option (d)
      c) Option (c)
      d) Option (a)
    2. As early as 1928, the Motilal Nehru Committee was seeking a ________.
      a) Bill of Rights
      b) Bill of Constitution
      c) All of these
      d) Bill of Duties
    3. Analyse the given information
      Ordinary rightsFundamental rights
      Changed by legislatureChanged by ________
      a) President’s assent
      b) Amendment in Constitution
      c) Simple majority by Rajya Saba members
      d) Presenting in Lok Sabha house
    4. The term “________” was used in the Constitution to describe the rights that would receive special protection.
      a) Ordinary rights
      b) Fundamental rights
      c) Bill of rights
      d) Directive Principles of State Policy
  29. In the given political outline map of India (on page 7), four States have been marked as (A), (B), (C) and (D). Identify these States on the basis of the information given below and write their correct names in your answer-book along with the respective serial number of the information used and the concerned alphabets given in the map as per the following format:
    Serial number of the information usedConcerned alphabet in the mapName of the State
    1. The State with the largest number of seats in its Legislative Assembly.
    2. The State to which the first Indian Governor General (1948 – 1950) belonged.
    3. The State where the Congress Party did not get majority in 1967 Assembly polls, but formed a government with the help of others.
    4. The region which is a Union Territory now.

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  30. Look at the given cartoon. Read the following statement and question. Answer as per requirement:

    1. Why does the cartoonist describe the new Iraqi Constitution as the castle of cards? (2)
    2. Would this description apply to the Indian Constitution? (3)
  31. Class 11 Pol Sc Sample Paper Section E

  32. Mention the characteristics of white colonial rulers’ policy practicised in South Africa till 1994?


    What is nationalism? Mention its merits and demerits also.

  33. What is the relationship between liberty and authority? Explain.


    Write the right of equality under the following points:

    1. Equality before law.
    2. No Discrimination.
    3. Equality of Opportunity.
  34. Examine some of the major recommendations of the Sarkaria Commission to improve centre-state relations.


    Describe the development of Federal System in India.

  35. Critically examine the Indian secularism?


    Discuss the scope of Political Theory.

Class 11 Political Science Sample Paper Solution

CBSE syllabus for class 11 Political Science is already updated for the academic session 2023-24. We have also updated the model question papers of 11th Pol Sc accordingly. We advise our students that they must go through the latest sample papers of class XI pol Sc and make sure that they are studying the updated content.

Here is the solution of 11th Pol Sc sample paper. We have uploaded many such sample papers on myCBSEguide app. You can also access them and prepare for your class 11 annual exams 2024.

  1. Class 11 Pol Sc Sample Paper Solution Section A

  2. (b) b, c, d, a
    Explanation: In 1989, the central government introduced two constitutional amendments.
    Later in 1992, the 73rd and 74th constitutional amendments were passed by the Parliament.
    The 73rd and 74th Amendments came into force in 1993.
    In 1996, a separate act was passed extending the provisions of the Panchayat system to tribal areas.
  3. (c) Two weeks
    Explanation: Two weeks
  4. (d) Rajya Sabha
    Explanation: The ‘Council of States’ which is also known as Rajya Sabha, a nomenclature that was announced by the chair in the House on the 23rd August 1954 has its own distinctive features.
  5. (c) It inculcates anti-nationalism
    Explanation: It inculcates anti-nationalism
  6. (c) It ensures that good people come to power.
    Explanation: It ensures that good people come to power.
  7. (a) Both A and R are true and R is the correct explanation of A.
    Explanation: Both A and R are true and R is the correct explanation of A.
  8. (c) Policy of quotas in education and jobs
    Explanation: In our country, we have adopted a policy of quotas or reserved seats in education and jobs to provide equality of opportunity to deprived groups.
  9. (d) Five
    Explanation: The Vice-President of India is the second-highest constitutional office in the country. He serves for a five-year term but can continue to be in the office, irrespective of the expiry of the term.
  10. (b) Nationalism
    Explanation: Nationalism
  11. (a) Both A and R are true and R is the correct explanation of A.
    Explanation: Both A and R are true and R is the correct explanation of A.
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  12. (d) Neo-liberalism
    Explanation: Neo-liberalism is a political approach that favours free-market capitalism, deregulation, and reduction in government spending. A free market is a product of neo-liberalism.
  13. (b) Socialism
    Explanation: Socialism refers to a set of political ideas that emerged as a response to the inequalities present in, and reproduced by, the industrial capitalist economy. The main concern of Socialism is how to minimise existing inequality and distribute resources justly.
  14. Class 11 Pol Sc Sample Paper Solution Section B

  15. The main features of the Constitution of India are:
    1. It establishes a sovereign, democratic, republic in India.
    2. It establishes a parliamentary form of government (Bi-cameral legislature).
    3. It provides fundamental rights and fundamental duties of the citizens.
    4. It establishes a secular state.
  16. Mahatma Gandhi was a strong contender for implementation of Panchayati Raj System. His idea of independence of the country was that independence must start from the bottom most level of the country, that is, the villages. He was against centralization of power at the centre only and wanted that every village must be self-sustained as far as local issues are concerned.
  17. It is the duty of the Prime Minister to convey the decisions of the Council of Ministers to the President. The President can demand information from the Prime Minister regarding the working of the administration. The Council of Ministers can discuss any issue with the President only through the Prime Minister.
  18. Natural equality implies that all men are born free and equal and are endowed with equal gifts and talents. It also means that the state should try to reduce inequality rather than perpetuate it. The state should promote those social &nd economic opportunities that offer equal chances. Natural equality is rather an ideal and not immediate reality. This ideal should be attained in society as far as possible.
  19. If a government takes some steps for the betterment of weaker society, known as protective discrimination as:
    1. It implies discrimination in favour of weaker section and unprivileged section of society.
    2. The reservation is given to scheduled castes and tribes and OBCs.
    3. These sections are not provided with the special advantages to a particular section but raise them to a level to compete with other sections of society on equal footing.
    4. Thus, protective discrimination removes imbalances from society.
    5. Since 1960, even stable nations have been confronted by nationalist demands put forward by regions to include demands for separate statehood.
    6. Even today, many nationalist struggle threaten to divide existing states, i.e. Quebecots in Canada, the Basques in northern Spain, the Tamils in Sri Lanka, Kurds in Turkey and Iraq, etc.
    7. Some linguistic groups also develop nationalism, i.e. Arab nationalism today may hope to unite Arab countries in a pan Arab Union.
  20. Class 11 Pol Sc Sample Paper Solution Section C

  21. In the simple majority system of representation, minorities do not get fair representation in the legislative body of their country. The term ‘minority representation’ means the provision of some special devices (like reservation) through which all the minorities get sufficient representation in the elective bodies of the country. Many methods have been suggested for the representation of minorities. Any of them suitable in the particular conditions of a country can be adopted.
  22. The jurisdiction of the high courts are:
    1. The high courts are empowered to issue orders, directions, and writs for the enforcement of fundamental rights and for any other purpose also.
    2. The high courts of Mumbai, Chennai, and Kolkata exercises original jurisdiction as they had before the enforcement of the new constitution on the cases involving the hearing of Christians Parsis.
    3. The above-mentioned high courts also exercise the original jurisdiction when the amount involved is more than 2,000 and in criminal cases, it extends to cases committed to them by the presidency Magistrates.
    4. The jurisdiction of the high courts also extends to the matters of administration, matrimonial, contempt of court and cases transferred from a lower court.
  23. Article 19 of the Constitution oflndia guarantees six freedoms to the citizens oflndia. Freedom of speech and expression is one of them. This freedom can be enjoyed by speaking and writing along-with the following limitations:
    1. Friendly relations with other countries.
    2. Contempt of court.
    3. Morality and decency.
    4. Security of the state.


    The state is an essential organisation as it gives individuals such an environment in which they can develop their personality. State gives the rights, liberty, and facilities to its citizens of their progress and such an arrangement in which these rights and liberties can be guarded. Now the question arises of political obligation. Does a citizen has the right to disobey the state and if he has then under what circumstances he can use the right? It is the most complicated and controversial questions. According to Hegel, an idealist, “State is a march of God on earth”. Idealists asserted that an individual should sacrifice himself in the name of the state and before the state. They believed the state is an end and the individual is a means. But famous liberalist Locke argues that the state is a trust and therefore, its purpose is to ensure and safeguard the life, liberty, and property of the people. If it fails to perform those functions it forfeits its claim to general disobedience.
    Laski also believes that in some circumstances an individual can disobey the state, for instance – if a state fails to provide the citizen an atmosphere that is essential for their development and progress, if it fails to safeguard the rights and liberties of its citizens and if it becomes autocratic and dictatorial. In such circumstances the right to disobey the state, sometimes considered to be the most fundamental and inherent right of the people. In such circumstances, it may become an obligation for the citizen to resist the unlawful authority of the state in order to change and replace it with a better type of government. This right can’t be taken away by the best of governments. But this right should not be used against public welfare. This right is based upon public welfare.

  24. Besides law-making, control of the executive and ensuring its accountability is the vital function of parliament. It ensures that the executive does not overstep its authority and remains responsible to the people who have elected them. It does so through:
    1. During the law making process, members of the legislature get an opportunity to deliberate on the policy direction of the executive and the ways in which policies are implemented.
    2. Apart from deliberating on bills, control may also be exercised during the general discussions in the House. The members of the Parliament can ask the ministers any questions (during Question Hour) regarding the functioning of the administration. The ministers are to give a satisfactory reply to all these questions.
    3. The most powerful weapon that enables the Parliament to ensure executive accountability is the no-confidence motion.
    4. The members of the Parliament by introducing ‘Adjournment Motion’ can invite the attention of the government to a serious problem or event.


    Composition of the Upper House (Legislative Council):
    Election: The members of the Legislative Council are not elected directly by the voters. They are elected in the following ways:

    1. One-third of the members of the Council are elected by the State Legislative Assembly. These persons are not to be the members of the House.
    2. One-third of the members are elected by the local bodies namely Corporations, Municipalities, Zila Parishads, Panchayats, etc.
    3. One-twelfth of the members are elected by the university graduates of at least 3 years of standing.

    Powers and Functions of the Legislative Council:

    1. Legislative Powers: Any non-money Bill which can be introduced in the Legislative Assembly can also be introduced in the Legislative Council. Any Ordinary Bill on the subjects mentioned in the State List and Concurrent List can be introduced in the Legislative Council. After the Bill is passed by the Legislative Council it is sent to the Government for his assent unless it is passed by the Legislative Assembly. The Legislative Council can delay a non-Money bill for 4 months.
    2. Financial Powers: In financial matters, the Legislative Council does not enjoy many powers. Money Bills cannot be introduced in this chamber. The Money Bill can only be introduced in the Legislative Assembly and after it is passed by it, it is sent to the Legislative Council and the Council can delay it only for 14 days. It may reject the bill or may not take any action over it for 14 days and in both cases, the bill is considered as passed by both the Houses.
    3. Control over the Executive: The Legislative Council does not exercise much control over the executive. Some ministers are of course taken from the Council. Its members can ask questions to the ministers and they are to give satisfactory answers to the questions. The Council can criticise the functioning of the department under the ministers. More than this it does not have any control over the Council of Ministers.
    4. Electoral Functions: The Legislative Council elects its Chairman and Deputy Chairman. The Chairman is responsible for running smoothly the business of the House. In his absence, the Deputy Chairman performs his duty. The Legislative Council has no right to take part in the election of the President of India, as the Legislative Assembly.
  25. Political Science is not a Science. It can be shown by the following reasons:
    1. Lack of Unanimity of Fundamentals: The scholars of Political Science do not hold unanimous opinions regarding the theories, subject-matter and conclusions of Political Science.
    2. Impossibility of subject-matter: Like Physical Sciences, Political Science has neither laboratory nor object for experiments. Experiments are not possible in Political Science like those of Physical Sciences.
    3. Prediction is difficult: The claim of Political Science as a Science is also ruled out on the ground that prediction is difficult in this subject. It cannot predict the coming events. In all other Physical Sciences prediction is possible.
    4. Cause-effect relationship not clear: In Political Science relationship between cause and effect cannot be established.
  26. Class 11 Pol Sc Sample Paper Solution Section D

    1. (a) Option (b)
      Explanation: Fundamental Rights are different from other rights available to us.
    2. (a) Bill of Rights
      Explanation: Bill of Rights
    3. (b) Amendment in Constitution
      Explanation: Amendment in Constitution
    4. (b) Fundamental rights
      Explanation: Fundamental rights
  27. Serial number of the information usedConcerned alphabet in the mapName of the State
    (i)DUttar Pradesh
    (ii)ATamil Nadu/ Madras State
    (iv)CJammu & Kashmir
    1. The cartoonist describes the new Iraqi Constitution as the castle of cards because it is being prepared by pro-US. The people, as well as the Constituent Assembly of lraq is not representing all ethnic groups of the country. Hence, the Constitution is imposed and will be scattered as a castle of cards.
    2. This description does not apply to Indian Constitution because:
      1. Indian Constitution is not imposed on Indians, but it was framed from among different shades of opinion after long discussions and debates.
      2. It was adopted by people willfully.
      3. It is a living document to be amended from time to time at par aspirations of people.
  28. Class 11 Pol Sc Sample Paper Solution Section E

  29. During the 17th to 20th centuries, white people of Europe established their rule over the black people in South Africa. They followed the policy of Apartheid. They forced the black to live outside the designated area of white. The Whites had the right to vote, contest elections and elect government; they were free to purchase property and go to any place in the country. Separate colonies for whites and blacks were established. The black had to ‘passes’ to work in white neighbourhoods. They were not allowed to keep their families in white areas. The schools were also separate for the people of a different colour.


    Nationalism is a desire for having a separate region for free and independent development of one’s culture, race, language, etc.
    Merits of Nationalism: 

    1. Nationalism makes an individual feel that the nation is above all and raises the standard of thinking and behaving of individuals about the nation.
    2. It asserts independent living and thinking among the citizens of the country.
    3. It creates a sense to make the country free from colonial rule or from those who rule over the nation from outside (foreigners, etc.).
    4. It gives an opportunity to each nation for the development of its culture and develops a sense of pride towards the culture and heritage of a nation.
    5. It makes a country self-sufficient to meet the basic necessities of a nation during a crisis.
    6. It creates healthy rivals at the international level to get a better standard of living, social life, etc.

    Demerits of nationalism: 

    1. Nationalism has resulted in World War I and II due to the greed of people to expand their own nationalism beyond territories.
    2. In nationalism, each fact is exaggerated, i.e. national achievements are given wide publicity to pose a major problem.
    3. Nationalism misuses the authority which creates a larger gap between the rich and the poor by making the rich richer and the poor poorer.
    4. Nationalism can be used against slave countries by capitalist countries. Hence, colonialism can never come to an end.
  30. The relationship between liberty and authority is:
    1. The one who thinks freedom is to do whatever one likes to do is a wrong opinion. So the authority imposes restrictions which are a number of times undesirable.
    2. On the contrary, the basic idea is that liberty and authority go hand-in-hand because authority not only guarantees the freedom but for equal opportunities also.
    3. Both authority and liberty must remain within their limits for the existence of both the state and individuals.
    4. If one crosses the limits, one is bound to destroy the purpose for which it was being maintained.
    5. Excess of liberty may destroy authority and concentration of authority can abolish the existence of liberty.


    1. Equality before law: It means there can be no discrimination between one citizen and another on the basis of caste, class, creed, sex or any of them. Article 14 of the Constitution of India guarantees all person equality before the law and equal protection of law within the territory of India. There can be no discrimination against the citizens.
    2. No Discrimination:
      1. For the success of democracy, all the citizens should have an equal right to enjoy universal adult suffrage.
      2. Every individual must have the right to be elected as a representative also to contest elections.
      3. The citizens must enjoy the right to hold public offices also without any. discrimination except for qualification.
    3. Equality of Opportunity: The term “equal opportunities for all” means that every human being should get the opportunity to progress without any discrimination. The citizens of India have been granted six Fundamental Rights. One of them is: “The Right to Equality”. This right has five parts, the third part of this right deals with equality of opportunity. According to this right, every individual gets an equal opportunity to hold the public office or to get the government service. Accordingly, the state will treat everyone equally without the consideration of religion, caste, sex or language.

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  31. The major recommendations of the Sarkaria Commission:
    1. Generous and more extensive use of Article 258 which empowers central government to give power to state governments.
    2. Whenever the Union proposes to undertake legislation from the concurrent list, prior consultations should be carried out with state governments collectively.
    3. The Planning Com mission and the National Development Council should be reformed so that they consult and involve the states as equal participants in development.
    4. Before deploying para-military forces in disturbed areas, the concerned state government should be consulted.
    5. Bills reserved for President’s consideration should be disposed of within four months.
    6. Article 356 should be used sparingly and only when all alternatives fail.
    7. Safeguards should be incorporated in Article 356 so that it is not used frequently.
    8. National Development Council (NDC) should be renamed as the National Economic Development Council (NEDC). It should emerge as the highest inter-governmental body for giving directions at the political level.
    9. An expert committee should be constituted to review from time to time in consultation with the states, the operational feasibility of the scope for levying taxes and duties under Article 269. (Taxes collected by a union and given to states).
    10. An expert committee with representatives from states should be appointed to recommend reforms in taxation.
    11. The state Chief Minister should be consulted before the appointment of a Governor.
    12. Residuary powers other than taxation should be placed on the concurrent list.
    13. Inter-state River Water Disputes Act should be amended to create a tribunal to solve water-sharing problems within one year of the receipt of such a complaint.
    14. The Inter-state council should have an independent secretariat.


     The factors can be studied in three divisions:

    1. The effects of the Act of 1935: Right from 1858, when the Indian administration was transferred to the British Parliament, the tendency to decentralization was increasing for administrative conveniences. New provinces were formed, and they were given more powers. Gradually, the provinces became administrative units with increasingly more self-governing powers. The Act of 1919 initiated the selfGovernment in the provinces. The Act of 1935 made these provinces fully autonomous. During this time, eleven provinces had fully autonomous and responsible governments.
    2. The Problems of the Princely States: India was divided into two parts—The Princely States and British India. The British Indian provinces were united under a single administration at the Centre, but about 600 Princely States were spread over India as separate autonomous entities. When the British left India, their suzerain power over the princely states ended and these states were declared independent. These states had the freedom to merge with India or Pakistan or to remain separate and independent. The national leaders faced the herculean task of uniting the British Indian Provinces with their uniform nature and the princely states with their diversity in administration, size and geographical, political and economic conditions. This was not possible in the unitary centralized form of Government.
    3. Compulsions due to Indian Conditions: India is a vast country with people having diversity in religion, language, food, living conditions, dress, customs, and manners, etc. Actually, Indian culture shows unity in diversity. This diversity is the unique characteristic of Indians giving an opportunity to the development of their personality. So it was realised that the federal form of Government would help the growth of this basic Indian characteristic. Secondly, the vastness of the country encouraged the tendency towards federalism because it was not possible to rule the country efficiently from one Centre.
  32. Indian secularism can be criticised on the following grounds:
    1. Secularism promotes religious freedom and equality. But sometimes argued to be anti-religions, i.e. to undermine some forms of religious identity to be dogmatic, violent, exclusivist and those to faster hatred of other religions.
    2. Secularism is sometimes linked to Christianity, unsuited to Indian conditions. India evolved a variant of secularism not just an implant from the west on Indian soil. Hence, secularism has booth western and non-western origins and the idea of peaceful coexistence of different religious communities has been important.
    3. Secularism is charged with minorities but it is to treat them with some respect and dignity with which all others are being treated.
    4. Secularism is criticised to be coercive and to interfere excessively with religions freedom. Though secularism permits state-supported religions reform it should not be equated false but the mere fact that secular parties utilise vote banks is not troublesome. All parties do so in relation to some social group.
    5. Secularism is criticised to be an impossible project to be far from pursuing an impossible objective India secularism mirrors the future of the world.


    The scope of Political Theory is as discussed ahead:

    1. State and Government are the Main Subjects of Political Theory: State is the main subject of political science and theory because the machinery of political science revolves around the State. In the sphere of political theory, we study the nature and size of the existing State and the practicability of the fundamental principle of the present government. But the nature of the State and government have changed with time. Now, their present nature is different from the past. Political theorists study the reasons for the origin of State and its process of development.
    2. Study of Power: Political theory also includes the study of power. In other words, “Political theory is the study of power process”. Power has many forms — political, economic and social power, individual and public power, national and international power, etc.
    3. Wider Scope of the Subject: The study of the political theory consists of study in different fields i.e., formal, informal, economy, social, psychological, geographical, ethical, political, religious and cultural. These factors influence the political system. In political theory, we study society, state, and international politics.
    4. Study of Political Ideology: Political theorists also study political ideologies. Various ideologies have been prevalent in the society from Plato to nowadays. For example, Idealism, Individualism, Marxism, Gandhism, Socialism, Utilitarianism, etc.
    5. Study of Associations and Institutions: Another feature of political theory is that it studies the various organizations, associations, and institutions established in the State.

CBSE Sample Papers for Class 11 2024

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