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CBSE Class 12 Geography Syllabus 2023-24

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CBSE Class 12 Geography Syllabus 2023-24 includes Human Geography, People, Human Activities, Transport, Communication and Trade, Human Settlements, Transport, Communication and International Trade, Geographical Perspective on selected issues and problems etc for the session 2023 – 2024. Here is the detailed syllabus. To download class 12 Geography CBSE latest sample question papers for the 2023 exams, please install the myCBSEguide App which is the best mobile app for CBSE students. The myCBSEguide app not only provides you with the CBSE class 12 Geography model question papers but also provides class 12 Geography chapter-wise test papers, class 12 Geography best revision notes and other study material for class 12 Geography students.

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CBSE Class 12
Geography (Code No. 029)
Syllabus (2023-24)

CBSE Class 12 Geography Syllabus NCERT Prescribed Textbook

  1. Fundamentals of Human Geography
  2. India – People and Economy
  3. Practical work in Geography- Part II

Links for Rationalised 2023-24 NCERT textbooks:

  1. https://ncert.nic.in/textbook.php?legy1=0-8
  2. https://ncert.nic.in/textbook.php?legy2=0-9
  3. https://ncert.nic.in/textbook.php?legy3=0-6


  1. The above textbooks are also available in Hindi medium.
  2. Kindly refer to the latest editions of all NCERT Textbooks.

Total Marks: 70
Time: 3 Hours

Fundamentals of Human Geography

Chapter No.Chapter NameNo. of PeriodsMarks allotted
Unit I
1Human Geography73
Unit II
2The World Population Density Distribution and Growth98
3Human Development7
Unit III
4Primary Activities1219
5Secondary Activities10
6Tertiary and Quaternary Activities10
7Transport, Communication and Trade15
8International Trade10
Map work (Based on identification of features on World Political Map)105

India People and Economy

Chapter No.Chapter NameNo. of PeriodsMarks allotted
Unit I
1Population Distribution Density Growth and Composition105
Unit II
2Human Settlements83
Unit III
3Land Resources and Agriculture910
4Water Resources9
5Mineral And Energy Resources9
6Planning and Sustainable Development in Indian Context7
Unit IV
7Transport and Communication117
8Transport and Communication9
Unit V
9Geographical Perspective on selected issues and problems85
Map Work (Based on Marking and labelling on a political Map of India)105

CBSE Class 12 Geography Syllabus Course Content

Fundamental of Human Geography

Chapter 1: Human Geography

  • To define Human Geography and describe the nature and scope of Human Geography as a discipline.

Chapter 2: The World Population – distribution, density and growth

  • To familiarize learners with some basic concepts of Population Geography.
  • To understand the patterns of population distribution in the world and correlate the factors influencing population distribution.

Chapter 3: Human Development

  • To understand the concept human development introduced by Dr. Mehbub Ul Haq and Prof. Amartya Sen.

Chapter 4: Primary Activities

  • To understand various categories of economic activities.
  • To describe Primary activities and relate the physical and social factors that affect the type of primary activities practised in different regions of the world.
  • To explain main features of different types of agricultural system practised in the world.

Chapter 5: Secondary Activities

  • To develop understanding of secondary activities with emphasis on manufacturing industries.
  • To give an overview of manufacturing processes, types, its significance and recent changes

Chapter 6: Tertiary and Quaternary Activities

  • To understand different types of tertiary activity and its importance in the economy.

Chapter 7: Transport and Communication

  • To acquire knowledge about various modes of transport in different continents.
  • To compare and synthesize the information about major transport routes around the globe.
  • To understand the development of communication networks and their impact on the modern world.

Chapter 8: International Trade

  • Familiarize the students with the basic concepts and principles of International trade.
  • To understand the basis of International trade, Balance of trade and types of International trade.
  • Gain knowledge about the concept of Dumping.
  • To outline the historical perspective of globalization and Role of WTO, its functions and its implications on the world trade.
  • Examine the importance of sea ports as Gateways of International trade

India People and Economy

Chapter 1: Population: Distribution Density, Growth and Composition

  • To correlate population distribution and density with the physiography of India.
  • To familiarize students with the demographic attributes of India

Chapter 2: Human Settlements

  • To understand how the form and size of settlement of any particular region reflects human relationship with the environment.

Chapter 3: Land Resources and Agriculture

  • To familiarise students with the land-use categories as maintained in the land revenue records.
  • To analyse the changes in landuse pattern registered in India due to change in shares of primary, secondary and tertiary sectors in GDP.

Chapter 4: Water Resources

  • To familiarise students about the water resources available in India and the factors that determine spatial distribution of the available water resources in the country and its utilization.

Chapter 5: Mineral and energy resources

  • To know about distribution of various minerals in the world.
  • To understand and realize the importance of minerals in human life.
  • To create an awareness about nature of different minerals and how to sustain them for the future.

Chapter 6: Planning and Sustainable Development in Indian Context

  • To understand the need for centralised planning (sectoral planning and regional planning) to accelerate uniform economic development over space as well the role of NITI Aayog.

Chapter 7: Transport and Communication

  • To acquire knowledge about various means of transport spread in different parts of India.
  • To compare and correlate various modes of transport to the physical regions of India.
  • To evaluate the impact of transport and communication networks on the development of our nation.

Chapter 8: International Trade

  • To familiarise students about the changes that have taken place in India’s international trade in terms of volume, composition and direction.

Chapter 9: Geographical Perspective on selected issues

  • To explain the causes and consequences of different types of pollution in India and suggest the measures to control it.

Practical Work in Geography Part II

Chapter 1: Data its source and compilation

  • To understand the importance of data and its uses in Geography

Chapter 2: Data Processing

  • To calculate Measures of Central tendency
  • To Compare Mean, Median And Mode

Chapter 3: Representation of data 

  • To represent data graphically using different techniques

Chapter 4: Spatial Information Technology

  • To understand the need to capture data from different sources and integrate them using a computer that is supported by geo-processing tools.
  • To learn basic principles of the Spatial Information Technology and its extension to the Spatial Information System, which is more commonly known as Geographical Information System.

Map Items for identification only on outline political map of the World
Fundamentals of Human Geography (CBSE Class 12 Geography Syllabus)

Chapter 1: Human Geography
Map Items- Nil

Chapter 2: The World Population Density Distribution and Growth
Map Items- Nil

Chapter 3: Human Development
Map Items- Nil

Chapter 4: Primary Activities
Map Items-

  • Areas of subsistence gathering (Fig 4.2)
  • Major areas of nomadic herding of the world (4.4)
  • Major areas of commercial livestock rearing (4.6)
  • Major areas of extensive commercial grain faming (4.12)
  • Major areas of mixed farming of the World (4.14)

Chapter 5: Secondary Activities
Map Items- Nil

Chapter 6: Tertiary and Quaternary Activities
Map Items- Nil 

Chapter 7: Transport, Communication and Trade
Map Items-

  • Terminal Stations of Transcontinental Railways- Trans-Siberian, Trans Canadian, Trans-Australian Railways

Major Sea Ports

  • Europe: North Cape, London, Hamburg
  • North America: Vancouver, San Francisco, New Orleans
  • South America: Rio De Janeiro, Colon, Valparaiso
  • Africa: Suez and Cape Town
  • Asia: Yokohama, Shanghai, Hong Kong, Aden, Karachi, Kolkata
  • Australia: Perth, Sydney, Melbourne

Major Airports:

  • Asia: Tokyo, Beijing, Mumbai, Jeddah, Aden
  • Africa: Johannesburg & Nairobi
  • Europe: Moscow, London, Paris, Berlin and Rome
  • North America: Chicago, New Orleans, Mexico City
  • South America: Buenos Aires, Santiago
  • Australia: Darwin and Wellington

Inland Waterways: Suez Canal, Panama Canal, Rhine waterways and St. Lawrence Seaways

Chapter 8: International Trade
Map Items- Nil

Map Items for locating and labelling on political outline map of India
India – People and Economy (CBSE Class 12 Geography Syllabus)

Chapter 1: Population Distribution Density Growth and Composition
Map Items- 
State with highest population density & state with lowest population density (2011)

Chapter 2: Human Settlement
Map Items- Nil

Chapter 3: -Land Resources and Agriculture
Map Items- Leading producing states of the following crops: (a) Rice (b) Wheat (c) Cotton (d) Jute (e) Sugarcane (f) Tea and (g) Coffee

Chapter 4: Water Resources
Map Items- Nil

Chapter 5: Mineral And Energy Resources
Map Items- Mines:

  • Iron-ore mines: Mayurbhanj, Bailadila, Ratnagiri, Bellary
  • Manganese mines: Balaghat, Shimoga
  • Copper mines: Hazaribagh, Singhbhum, Khetari
  • Bauxite mines: Katni, Bilaspur and Koraput
  • Coal mines: Jharia, Bokaro, Raniganj, Neyveli
  • Oil Refineries: Mathura, Jamnager, Barauni

Chapter 6: -Planning and Sustainable Development in Indian Context
Map Items- Nil

Chapter ​​​​​​​7: Transport and Communication
Map Items-

Chapter ​​​​​​​8: -International Trade
Map Items- Mark and label the major sea ports and airports on an outline map of India.

  • Major Sea Ports: Kandla, Mumbai, Marmagao, Kochi, Mangalore, Tuticorin, Chennai, Vishakhapatnam, Paradwip, Haldia
  • International Air ports: Ahmedabad, Mumbai, Bengaluru, Chennai, Kolkata, Guwahati, Delhi, Amritsar, Thiruvananthapuram & Hyderabad.

Chapter ​​​​​​​9: Geographical Perspective on selected issues and problems
Map Items-

CBSE Class 12 Geography Syllabus Guidelines for Internal Assessment/ Geography Practical

  • A practical file must be prepared by students covering all the topics prescribed in the practical syllabus.
  • The file should be completely handwritten with a cover page, index page and acknowledgment.
  • All statistical diagrams and maps should be drawn neatly with appropriate headings, scale, index etc. Data to draw statistical diagrams can be taken from the NCERT text book or Census.
  • The practical file will be assessed both by the internal and external examiners at the time of CBSE practical examinations.
  • A written exam of 22 marks will be conducted based on the above given practical syllabus on the day of the practical exam.
  • Viva will be conducted based on practical syllabus only.
  • Written Exam – 22 Marks
  • Practical file – 05 Marks
  • Viva – 03 Marks

CBSE Sample Paper 2023-24

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