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CBSE class 12 Geography New Syllabus 2018-19

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CBSE class 12 Geography New Syllabus 2018-19 in PDF format for free download. Geography New syllabus for 2018 2019 class 12 CBSE is now available in myCBSEguide app. The curriculum for March 2019 exams is designed by CBSE, New Delhi as per NCERT text books for the session 2018-19.

Download CBSE class 12 Geography New Syllabus 2018-19

CBSE class 12 Geography New Syllabus 2018-19

Geography is introduced as an elective subject at the senior secondary stage. After ten years of general education, students branch out at the beginning of this stage and are exposed to the rigors of the discipline for the first time. Being an entry point for the higher education, students choose Geography for pursuing their academic interest and, therefore, need a broader and deeper understanding of the subject. For others, geographical knowledge is useful in daily lives because it is a valuable medium for the education of young people. Its contribution lies in the content, cognitive processes, skills and values that Geography promotes and thus helps the students explore, understand and evaluate the environmental and social dimensions of the world in a better manner.

Since Geography explores the relationship between people and their environment, it includes studies of physical and human environments and their interactions at different scales-local, state/region, nation and the world. The fundamental principles responsible for the varieties in the distributional pattern of physical and human features and phenomena over the earth’s surface need to be understood properly. Application of these principles would be taken up through selected case studies from the world and India. Thus, the physical and human environment of India and study of some issues from a geographical point of view will be
covered in greater detail. Students will be exposed to different methods used in geographical investigations.


  • The course in Geography will help learners to:
  • Familiarise with key concepts, terminology and core principles of Geography.
  • Describe locations and correlate with Geographical Perspectives.
  • List/describe what students might see, hear, smell, at a place.
  • List/describe ways a place is linked with other places.
  • Compare conditions and connections in one place to another.
  • Analyze/describe how conditions in one place can affect nearby places.
  • Identify regions as places that are similar or connected.
  • Describe and interpret the spatial pattern features on a thematic map.
  • Search for, recognize and understand the processes and patterns of the spatial arrangement of the natural features as well as human aspects and phenomena on the earth’s surface.
  • Understand and analyses the inter-relationship between physical and human environments and utilise such knowledge in reflecting on issues related to community.
  • Apply geographical knowledge and methods of inquiry to emerging situations or problems at different levels-local, regional, national and global.
  • Develop geographical skills, relating to collection, processing and analysis of spatial data/ information and preparation of report including maps and graphs and use of computers where ever possible; and to be sensitive to issues.

CBSE class 12 Geography New Syllabus 2018-19
Class XII (2018-19)

One Theory Paper: 3 Hours 70 Marks

AFundamentals of Human Geography35 Marks
Unit 1: Human Geography30
Unit 2: People
Unit 3: Human Activities
Unit 4: Transport, Communication and Trade
Unit 5: Human settlements
Map Work5
BIndia: People and Economy35 Marks
Unit 6: People
Unit 7: Human Settlements
Unit 8: Resources and Development
Unit 9: Transport, Communication and International Trade
Unit 10: Geographical Perspective on selected issues and problems
Map Work
CPractical Work30 Marks
Unit 1: Processing of Data and Thematic Mapping15
Unit 2: Field study or Spatial Information Technology10
Unit 3: Practical Record Book and Viva Voce5

CBSE class 12 Geography New Syllabus 2018-19

Part-A. Fundamentals of Human Geography: 90 Periods 35 Marks
Unit 1: Human Geography: Nature and Scope 05 Periods
Unit 2: People 18 Periods

  • Population-distribution,density and growth
  • Population change-spatial patterns and structure; determinants of population change;
  • Age-sex ratio; rural-urban composition;
  • Human development – concept; selected indicators, international comparisons

Unit 3: Human Activities 28 Periods

  • Primary activities – concept and changing trends; gathering, pastoral, mining, subsistence agriculture, modern agriculture; people engaged in agricultural and allied activities – some examples from selected countries.297
  • Secondary activities-concept; manufacturing: types – household, small scale, large scale; agro based and mineral based industries; people engaged in secondary activities – some examples from selected countries.
  • Tertiary activities-concept; trade, transport and tourism; services; people engaged in tertiary activities – some examples from selected countries.
  • Quatenary activities-concept; people engaged in quatenary activities – case study from selected countries.

Unit 4: Transport, Communication and Trade: 24 Periods

  • Land transport – roads, railways; trans-continental railways.
  • Water transport- inland waterways; major ocean routes.
  • Air transport- Intercontinental air routes.
  • Oil and gas pipelines.
  • Satellite communication and cyber space- Importance and usage for geographical information; use of GPS.
  • International trade-Bases and changing patterns; ports as gateways of international trade, role of WTO in International trade.
  • Ocean: National rights and international treaties.

Unit 5: Human Settlements: 10 Periods

  • Settlement types – rural and urban; morphology of cities (case study); distribution of mega cities; problems of human settlements in developing countries.

Map Work on identification of features based on 1-5 units on the outline/ Physical/Political map of World. 05 Periods

Part B. India: People and Economy: 90 Periods
Unit 6: People 15 Periods

  • Population: distribution, density and growth; composition of population – linguistic, religious; sex, rural-urban and occupational-regional variations in growth of population.
  • Migration: international, national-causes and consequences.
  • Human development: selected indicators and regional patterns.
  • Population, environment and development.

Unit 7: Human Settlements: 10 Periods

  • Rural settlements – types and distribution.
  • Urban settlements – types, distribution and functional classification.

Unit 8: Resources and Development: 30 Periods

  • Land resources- general land use; agricultural land use, Geographical conditions and distribution of major crops (Wheat, Rice, Tea, Coffee, Cotton, Jute, Sugarcane and Rubber), agricultural development and problems.298
  • Water resources-availability and utilization-irrigation, domestic, industrial and other uses; scarcity of water and conservation methods-rain water harvesting and watershed management.
  • Mineral and energy resources- distribution of metallic (Iron ore, Copper, Bauxite, Manganese); non-metallic (Mica, Salt) minerals; conventional (Coal, Petroleum, Natural gas and Hydroelectricity) and non-conventional energy sources (solar, wind, biogas) and conservation.
  • Industries – types, factors of industrial location; distribution and changing pattern of selected industries-iron and steel, cotton textiles, sugar, petrochemicals, and knowledge based industries; impact of liberalization, privatisation and globalisation on industrial location; industrial clusters.
  • Planning in India- target group area planning (case study); idea of sustainable development (case study).

Unit 9: Transport, Communication and International Trade: 15 Periods

  • Transport and communication-roads, railways, waterways and airways: oil and gas pipelines; Geographical information and communication networks.
  • International trade- changing pattern of India’s foreign trade; sea ports and their hinterland and airports.

Unit 10: Geographical Perspective on Selected Issues and Problems: 15 Periods

  • Environmental pollution; urban-waste disposal.
  • Urbanisation, rural-urban migration; problems of slums.
  • Land degradation.

Map work on locating and labelling of features based on above units on outline map of India. 05 Marks
Part-C Practical Work: 40 Periods
Unit 1: Processing of Data and Thematic Mapping: 25 Periods

  • Type and Sources of data: Primary, Secondary and other sources.
  • Tabulating and processing of data; calculation of averages, measures of central tendency, deviation and rank correlation.
  • Representation of data- construction of diagrams: bars, circles and flowchart; thematic maps; construction of dot; choropleth and isopleth maps.
  • Data analysis and generation of diagrams, graphs and other visual diagrams using computers.

Unit 2: Field Study or Spatial Information Technology: 15 Periods
Field visit and study: map orientation, observation and preparation of sketch; survey on any one of the local concerns; pollution, ground water changes, land use and land-use changes, poverty, energy issues, soil degradation, impact of floods and drought, catchment area of school, Market survey and Household survey (any one topic of local concern may be taken up for the study; observation and questionnaire survey may be adopted for the data collection; collected data may be tabulated and analysed with diagrams and maps). Students can be given different topics to get more insight into various problems of society.


Spatial Information Technology
Introduction to GIS; hardware requirements and software modules; data formats; raster and
vector data, data input, editing and topology building; data analysis; overlay and buffer.

Prescribed Books:

  1. Fundamentals of Physical Geography, Class XI, Published by NCERT
  2. India, Physical Environment, Class XI, Published by NCERT
  3. Practical Work in Geography, Class XI, Published by NCERT
  4. Fundamentals of Human Geography, Class XII, Published by NCERT
  5. India – People and Economy, Class XII, Published by NCERT
  6. Practical Work in Geography, Class XII, Published by NCERT

Note: The above textbooks are also available in Hindi medium.
Weightage to content (Chapter nos. of NCERT textbooks are given against unit within brackets)
Note: No Chapterwise weightage, care to be taken to cover chapters in both books.

  1. Part A: Fundamentals of Human Geography (Textbook I): 35 marks
    AFundamentals of Human Geography35 Marks
    Unit 1: Human Geography (Ch.1)30
    Unit 2: People (Ch. 2 to 4)
    Unit 3: Human Activities (Ch. 5 to 7)
    Unit 4: Transport, Communication and Trade (Ch. 8 and 9)
    Unit 5: Human Settlements (Ch. 10)
    Map Work—–World map (for identification only relating to Units 1 to 5)5
  2. Weightage to content (Chapter nos. of NCERT textbooks are given against unit within brackets)
    Part B: India, People and Economy (Textbook II): 35 marks

    BIndia: People and Economy35 Marks
    Unit 6: People (Ch. 1 -3)30
    Unit 7: Human Settlements (Ch. 4)
    Unit 8: Resources and Development (Ch. 5-9)
    Unit 9: Transport, Communication and International Trade (Ch. 10-11)
    Unit 10: Geographical Perspective on selected issues and problems (Ch.12)
    Map Work5
    Grand Total70
  3. Weightage to Difficulty Level
    Estimated Difficulty LevelPercentage
    (i) Easy (E)20%
    (ii) Average (AV)60%
    (iii) Difficult (D)20%

    Scheme of Option: No internal choice except for blind students.

Fundamentals of Human Geography
Textbook I (NCERT)
Revised Map Items for identification only on outline political map of the World.

Unit-1Ch. -1Nil
Unit-2Ch.2 to 41A large country in each continement in terms of area.
1Areas having low and high density of population of each
2Countries having low/high growth rate of population.
Unit-3Ch. 5 to 71Areas of subsistence gathering.
Primary Activities.2Major areas of nomadic herding of the world.
3Major areas of commercial livestock rearing.
4Major areas of extensive commercial grain faming.
5Major areas of mixed farming of the World.
6Major areas of mediterreneam agricalture of the World.
Secondary Activities1Ruhr region, Silicon Valley, Appalachian region, Great
lakes region.
Unit – 4Ch. 8 to 92Transcontinental Railways: Terminal Stations of
transcontinental railways
3Major Sea Ports:
Europe: North Cape, London, Hamburg North America: Vancouver, San Francisco, New Orleans
South America: Rio De Janeiro, Colon, Valparaiso
Africa: Suez, Durban and Cape Town
Asia: Yokohama, Shanghai, Hongkong, Aden, Colombo, Karachi, Kolkata
Australia: Perth, Sydney, Melbourne and Auckland
4Inland Waterways: Suez canal, Panama canal, Rhine
waterway and St. Lawrence Seaway
5Major Airports:
Asia: Tokyo, Beijing, Irkutsk, Vladivostok, Mumbai, Jedda, Aden
Europe: Moscow, London, Paris, Berlin and Rome
North America: Chicago, New Orleans, Mexico City
South America: Bogota, Brasilia, Buenos Aires, Santiago
Australia: Drarwin and Wellington.
Unit-5Ch. 10Mega cities of the world

India – People and Economy
Textbook II (NCERT)
Revised Map for locating and labelling only on the outline political map of India

Units – 6 & 7 (Ch. 1 to 4)

  • State with high level of urbanised and low level of urbanisation
  • • One state higher level of HDI & One lower level of HDI
  • • State with higher level of pop pressure on land & one state lover level
  • of pop pressure in land.
  • • One out migrating state
  • • One in migrating state
  • • One state with higher gender ratio & one with lower gender ratio
  • • Any city with more than 10 million population.

Unit – 8 (Ch. 5 to 9)

Leading producing states of the following crops:
(a) Rice, (b) Wheat, (c) Jowar, (d) Bajra,(e) Maize, (f) Groundnut, (g) Cotton, (h) Jute, (i) Sugarcane, (j) Tea, and (k) Coffee

Iron-ore mines: Mayurbhanj, Kendujhar, Durg, Bailadila, Ratnagiri, Bellary. Manganese mines: Sundergarh, Balaghat, Nagpur, Shimoga.
Copper mines: Hazaribagh, Singhbhum, Khetari, Udaipur and Amarkantak.
Bauxite mines: Katni, Bilaspur and Koraput.
Coal mines: Jharia, Bokaro, Raniganj, Korba, Talcher, Singareni, Neyveli.
Oil Refineries: Bhatinda, Panipat, Mathura, Jamnager, Mangalore, Tatipaka, Haldia, Guwahati, Baroni Industries.
Iron and Steel Plants: Bhadravati, Bhilai, Bokaro.
Durgapur, Rourkela and Jameshedpur.
Cotton Textile: Ahmedabad, Surat, Gwalior, Varanasi, Murshidabad, Pune, Nagpur, Solapur and Mysore.
Software Technology Parks: Gandhinager, Shrinager, Mohali, Shimla, Delhi, Noida, Kanpur, Indore, Hyderabad, Bhubaneshwar and Major Industrial Regions.

Unit – 9 (Ch. 10 – 11)

  1. Important tower on north south corredor easthest corridor & golden
  2. Headquarters of all railway zones.
  3. Major Sea Ports: Kandla, Mumbai, Marmagao, Kochi, Ennore, Tuticorin, Chennai, Vishakhapatnam, Paradwip, Haldia.
  4. International Air ports: Ahmedabad, Mumbai, Bangalore, Chennai, Kolkata, Guwahati, Delhi, Amritsar, Panaji, Kochi, Thiruvananthapuram & Hyderabad

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