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CBSE Class 12 Biology Syllabus 2022-23 includes Reproduction, Genetics and Evolution, Biology and Human Welfare, Biotechnology and its Applications, Ecology and Environment etc for the session 2022 – 2023. Here is the detailed syllabus. To download class 12 Biology CBSE latest sample question papers for the 2023 exams, please install the myCBSEguide App which is the best mobile app for CBSE students. The myCBSEguide app not only provides you the CBSE class 12 Biology model question papers but it also provides class 12 Biology chapter-wise test papers, class 12 Biology best revision notes and other study material for class 12 Biology students.
CBSE Class – 12
Biology (Code No. 044)
Time: 03 Hours
Max. Marks: 70
|VII||Genetics and Evolution||20|
|VIII||Biology and Human Welfare||12|
|IX||Biotechnology and its Applications||12|
|X||Ecology and Environment||10|
Chapter-2: Sexual Reproduction in Flowering Plants
Flower structure; development of male and female gametophytes; pollination – types, agencies and examples; outbreeding devices; pollen-pistil interaction; double fertilization; post fertilization events – development of endosperm and embryo, development of seed and formation of fruit; special modes- apomixis, parthenocarpy, polyembryony; Significance of seed dispersal and fruit formation.
Chapter-3: Human Reproduction
Male and female reproductive systems; microscopic anatomy of testis and ovary; gametogenesis – spermatogenesis and oogenesis; menstrual cycle; fertilisation, embryo development up to blastocyst formation, implantation; pregnancy and placenta formation (elementary idea); parturition (elementary idea); lactation (elementary idea).
Chapter-4: Reproductive Health
Need for reproductive health and prevention of Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs); birth
control – need and methods, contraception and medical termination of pregnancy (MTP);
amniocentesis; infertility and assisted reproductive technologies – IVF, ZIFT, GIFT (elementary
idea for general awareness).
Unit-VII Genetics and Evolution
Chapter-5: Principles of Inheritance and Variation
Heredity and variation: Mendelian inheritance; deviations from Mendelism – incomplete dominance, co-dominance, multiple alleles and inheritance of blood groups, pleiotropy;
elementary idea of polygenic inheritance; chromosome theory of inheritance; chromosomes and genes; Sex determination – in human being, birds and honey bee; linkage and crossing over; sex linked inheritance – haemophilia, colour blindness; Mendelian disorders in humans -thalassemia; chromosomal disorders in humans; Down’s syndrome, Turner’s and Klinefelter’s syndromes.
Chapter-6: Molecular Basis of Inheritance
Search for genetic material and DNA as genetic material; Structure of DNA and RNA; DNA
packaging; DNA replication; Central Dogma; transcription, genetic code, translation; gene expression and regulation – lac operon; Genome, Human and rice genome projects; DNA fingerprinting.
Origin of life; biological evolution and evidences for biological evolution (paleontology,
comparative anatomy, embryology and molecular evidences); Darwin’s contribution, modern
synthetic theory of evolution; mechanism of evolution – variation (mutation and recombination)
and natural selection with examples, types of natural selection; Gene flow and genetic drift;
Hardy – Weinberg’s principle; adaptive radiation; human evolution.
Unit-VIII Biology and Human Welfare
Chapter-8: Human Health and Diseases
Pathogens; parasites causing human diseases (malaria, dengue, chikungunya, filariasis,
ascariasis, typhoid, pneumonia, common cold, amoebiasis, ring worm) and their control; Basic concepts of immunology – vaccines; cancer, HIV and AIDS; Adolescence – drug and alcohol abuse.
Chapter-10: Microbes in Human Welfare
Microbes in food processing, industrial production, sewage treatment, energy generation and microbes as bio-control agents and bio-fertilizers. Antibiotics; production and judicious use.
Unit-IX Biotechnology and its Applications
Chapter-11: Biotechnology – Principles and Processes
Genetic Engineering (Recombinant DNA Technology).
Chapter-12: Biotechnology and its Application
Application of biotechnology in health and agriculture: Human insulin and vaccine production,
stem cell technology, gene therapy; genetically modified organisms – Bt crops; transgenic
animals; biosafety issues, biopiracy and patents.
Unit-X Ecology and Environment
Chapter-13: Organisms and Populations
Organisms and environment: Habitat and niche, population and ecological adaptations;
population interactions – mutualism, competition, predation, parasitism; population attributes –
growth, birth rate and death rate, age distribution.
Ecosystems: Patterns, components; productivity and decomposition; energy flow; pyramids of
number, biomass, energy; nutrient cycles (carbon and phosphorous); ecological succession;
ecological services – carbon fixation, pollination, seed dispersal, oxygen release (in brief).
Chapter-15: Biodiversity and its Conservation
Biodiversity – Concept, patterns, importance; loss of biodiversity; biodiversity conservation;
hotspots, endangered organisms, extinction, Red Data Book, Sacred Groves, biosphere reserves, national parks, wildlife, sanctuaries and Ramsar sites.
Time: 3 Hours
Max. Marks: 30
|One Major Experiment 5||5|
|One Minor Experiment 2 & 3||4|
|Slide Preparation 1, & 4||5|
|Practical Record + Viva Voce||(Credit to the student’s work over the academic session may be given)||4|
|Investigatory Project and its|
Project Record + Viva Voce
A. List of Experiments 60 Periods
- Prepare a temporary mount to observe pollen germination.
- Study the plant population density by quadrat method.
- Study the plant population frequency by quadrat method.
- Prepare a temporary mount of onion root tip to study mitosis.
- Isolate DNA from available plant material such as spinach, green pea seeds, papaya, etc.
B. Careful observation of the following (Spotting)
- Flowers adapted to pollination by different agencies (wind, insects, birds).
- Pollen germination on stigma through a permanent slide or scanning electron micrograph.
- Identification of stages of gamete development, i.e., T.S. of testis and T.S. of ovary through permanent slides (from grasshopper/mice).
- Meiosis in onion bud cell or grasshopper testis through permanent slides.
- T.S. of blastula through permanent slides (Mammalian).
- Mendelian inheritance using seeds of different colour/sizes of any plant.
- Prepared pedigree charts of any one of the genetic traits such as rolling of tongue, blood groups, ear lobes, widow’s peak and colourblindness.
- Controlled pollination – emasculation, tagging and bagging.
- Common disease-causing organisms like Ascaris, Entamoeba, Plasmodium, any fungus causing ringworm through permanent slides, models or virtual images. Comment on symptoms of diseases that they cause.
- Two plants and two animals (models/virtual images) found in xeric conditions. Comment upon their morphological adaptations.
- Two plants and two animals (models/virtual images) found in aquatic conditions. Comment upon their morphological adaptations.
Practical Examination for Visually Impaired Students of Classes 12
Time: 2 Hours
Max. Marks: 30
|Identification/Familiarity with the apparatus||5|
|Written test (Based on given / prescribed practicals)||10|
- The practical examination will be of two hour duration. A separate list of ten experiments is included here.
- The written examination in practicals for these students will be conducted at the time of practical examination of all other students.
- The written test will be of 30 minutes duration.
- The question paper given to the students should be legibly typed. It should contain a total of 15 practical skill based very short answer type questions. A student would be required to answer any 10 questions.
- A writer may be allowed to such students as per CBSE examination rules.
- All questions included in the question paper should be related to the listed practicals.
Every question should require about two minutes to be answered.
- These students are also required to maintain a practical file. A student is expected to record at least five of the listed experiments as per the specific instructions for each subject.
- These practicals should be duly checked and signed by the internal examiner.
- The format of writing any experiment in the practical file should include aim, apparatus required, simple theory, procedure, related practical skills, precautions etc.
- Questions may be generated jointly by the external/internal examiners and used for assessment.
- The viva questions may include questions based on basic theory/principle/concept, apparatus/materials/chemicals required, procedure, precautions, sources of error etc.
A. Class XII A. Items for Identification/ familiarity with the apparatus for assessment in practicals (All experiments) Beaker, flask, petriplates, soil from different sites – sandy, clayey, loamy, small potted plants, aluminium foil, paint brush, test tubes, starch solution, iodine, ice cubes, Bunsen burner/spirit lamp/water bath, large flowers, Maize inflorescence, model of developmental stages highlighting morula and blastula of frog, beads/seeds of different shapes/size/texture Ascaris, Cactus/Opuntia(model).
B. List of Practicals
- Study of flowers adapted to pollination by different agencies (wind, insects).
- Identification of T.S of morula or blastula of frog (Model).
- Study of Mendelian inheritance pattern using beads/seeds of different sizes/texture.
- Preparation of pedigree charts of genetic traits such as rolling of tongue, colour blindness.
- Study of emasculation, tagging and bagging by trying out an exercise on controlled pollination.
- Identify common disease causing organisms like Ascaris (model)and learn some common symptoms of the disease that they cause.
- Comment upon the morphological adaptations of plants found in xerophytic conditions.
Note: The above practicals may be carried out in an experiential manner rather than recording observations.
- Biology, Class-XII, Published by NCERT
- Other related books and manuals brought out by NCERT (consider multimedia also)
- Biology Supplementary Material (Revised). Available on CBSE website.
Question Paper Design (Theory) 2022-23
|Demonstrate Knowledge and Understanding||50%|
|Application of Knowledge / Concepts||30%|
|Analyse, Evaluate and Create||20%|
- Typology of questions: VSA including MCQs, Assertion – Reasoning type questions; SA; LAI; LA-II; Source-based/ Case-based/ Passage-based/ Integrated assessment questions.
- An internal choice of approximately 33% would be provided.
- Suggestive verbs for various competencies
- Demonstrate, Knowledge and Understanding State, name, list, identify, define, suggest, describe, outline, summarize, etc.
- Application of Knowledge/Concepts
Calculate, illustrate, show, adapt, explain, distinguish, etc.
- Analyze, Evaluate and Create Interpret, analyse, compare, contrast, examine, evaluate, discuss, construct, etc.